Abdominal pain

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What is case study of medical treatments?
The subject of case study deals with  in-depth investigations of a single patient, a  group of patient,  or for a  community about a certain case of diseases .It is not  a research oriented activity , but research fellows can  select the  methods of collection of authentic data  and study and analyse that to  generate information material applicable and beneficial for case studies. There are various types of case studies like:
Collective case study: This case study takes care of multiple cases, which may or may not be physically correlated with other cases. A collective case study often carried out in one site like school, hospital, or university by medical examining a number of different departments or other units separately.
Advantages case study activity: Case studies take care of detail to be collected that could not be available easily for other research study designs. The case study result found to be a lot richer and of in-depth than can be found through other procedure .In this case study, scientific experiments are also conducted.
Use of case studies:
Case studies are often used in novel research work. These are highly beneficial and help us to generate medical information and new treatment related concepts. The information might be applied for treatment elsewhere. They are an excellent way and means for illustration of theories and can help to demonstrate how different aspects of a person’s life are interrelated.
Based on the details provided in the case study, kindly provide:
REPUBLIC OF ZACHISTAN –
INTRODUCING NEW TREATMENT GUIDELINES FOR SEVERE ARVOPHILLIA
Disease Overview
Arvophillia is an infectious disease that affects approximately 225 million people worldwide. Almost one million people die from the disease each year, mostly children younger than five years old. Although the vast majority of arvophillia cases occur in sub-Saharan Africa, the disease is a public-health problem in more than 109 countries in the world, 45 of which are in Africa.
Uncomplicated arvophillia is caused by a parasite that is transmitted to humans through specific bug bites. With early diagnosis, followed by an effective and timely treatment, a patient can expect a complete recovery. If left untreated, uncomplicated arvophillia, can progress to severe arvophillia (approximately 10% of untreated cases). Without treatment, these severe cases have a 100% mortality rate.
Two examples of treatments are presented below:
Treatment 1
Abdominal pain
History
A woman 56-year-of age admitted to Hospital emergency complaining of abdominal pain symptom. She reported to develop developed continuous pain in the upper abdomen area which was becoming more severe twenty-four hours before. The pain was reported to radiate into her back.
She had a feeling of nauseated and alternate hot and cold. Her past medical history is notable for a duodenal ulcer which was found to be successfully treated by applying Helicobacter eradication therapy5 years back. She is a chain smoker with 15 cigarettes a day, and also shared a bottle of wine in the evening with her husband.
Examination
The patient had an unwell look and dehydrated. Her weighs is 115 kg. She had a fever, 38.5°C, her pulse is 108/min and blood pressure 124/.Cardiovascular and respiratory system examination were found to be normal. She was found to be tender in the right upper quadrant and epigastrium, along with guarding and rebound nature of tenderness. Bowel sounds were sparse.
Treatment
A plain abdominal X-ray was conducted.
The woman was diagnosed acute cholecystitis. Cholecystitis is considered as most common in obese, middle-aged women, and found to be triggered by eating meals with high fat. Cholecystitis is usually the route cause by a gallstone impacting in the cystic duct. Continued secretion from the gallbladder results increased pressure and inflammation along the walls of gallbladder. Bacterial infection is usually caused by Gram-negative organisms and anaerobes. Ischaemia in the distended gallbladder can result perforation resulting either generalized peritonitis or localized abscess formation. Alternatively, it can be possible that the stone can spontaneously cause dis impact and the symptoms spontaneously improved. Gallstones might stick in the common bile duct leading to either cholangitis or pancreatitis.
Treatment 2
Liver
History
A man, 45 years old complained his general practitioner (GP) reporting about a 6-month history of poor appetite and weight loss, drop from 78 to 71 kg. He also reported that during the last 3 months he had repeated and frequent nausea, particularly in the morning time. He told his Doctor that, during last 3 months the morning nausea was accompanied with vomiting on several times. During last one month he had swelling in his ankles. Despite losing weight, he noticed his trousers getting tighter.
He had no abdominal pain. He has no serious past medical history and knows no family history as he was an adopted child. He takes no regular medication. He smoked 5-6 cigarettes daily from his age of 18 and drunk 15–20 units of alcohol per week. He is a chef by profession, without exception in fashionable restaurants. He is single.
Examination
It was found that the man has plethoric features. He also had pitting oedema in his ankles. He appears to have lost weight due to his limbs, but not due to his trunk. He has nine spider naive on his upper side. His pulse is normal with a rate is 92/min. It was found that his jugular venous pressure, JVP was not raised and his blood pressure is a bit high at 146/84. The cardiovascular and respiratory systems were found to be normal. The abdomen was found to be distended. He has no palpable masses but had shifting dullness.
Treatment
It was diagnosed that the man has abnormal liver function tests result which confirms hepatic failure. His hypoproteinemia has made the Ascites and ankle swelling. The number of spider naive is abnormally more than the accepted normal of three. The root cause of his health problems is likely to be alcohol as it is considered as a common cause of such, he is at high risk through his work in the catering business. Hissymptoms of morning nausea and vomiting are considered typical, and this would due to hiscushingoid appearance that is alcohol increases adrenocorticotropic like hormone, ACTH, secretion and the formation of Macrocytosis on the blood film caused by dietary folate deficiency and a direct toxic action on the bone marrow created by consuming alcohol although the intake was low to diagnosis of alcoholic liver.
Global Health Policy Implication
The relevant details and figures are provided in the appendix.
Appendix
Epidemiological Profile of Republic of Zachistan
Total Population
34,619,949
Diagnosed arvophillia cases in total population
27%
Severe arvophillia among diagnosed cases
5%
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