FIND A SOLUTION AT Academic Writers Bay
©Australian Institute of Business . V2Mar11 – CD:2011:10ed 0
©Australian Institute of Business. 1 V12Feb2016
ABLE OF CONTENTS
1. INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 2
2. TEN-STEP APPROACH TO WRITING ASSIGNMENTS …………………………………………………….. 2
3. BASIC FORMAT OF AIB ASSIGNMENTS……………………………………………………………………… 5
4. WORD COUNT ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 5
5. REFERENCING IN AIB ASSIGNMENTS………………………………………………………………………… 6
5.1 The importance and relevance of referencing……………………………………………………………6
5.2 Using peer-reviewed / scholarly journal articles ………………………………………………………..7
5.3 Using AIB online library resources ……………………………………………………………………………7
5.4 No or minimal referencing: plagiarism………………………………………………………………………8
6. ACADEMIC INTEGRITY: AVOIDING PLAGIARISM, COLLUSION, ETC ……………………………….. 8
APPENDIX A – EXAMPLE ASSIGNMENT WITH ADDED COMMENTS ………………………………….. 10
©Australian Institute of Business. 2 V12Feb2016
While your assignment comprises only part of your subject grade, it serves an important
function in helping you focus on the concepts and clarify your learning. In this sense, the
assignment prepares you for the exam, which is much more heavily weighted. Scoring well on
the assignment can sometimes mean the difference between a pass and a fail for the subject–
or a high distinction versus just a distinction.
This Assignment Guide:
• provides advice on how to approach an assignment (in Section 2 below)
• shows the basic expected format of an assignment (in Section 3)
• discusses the importance of referencing and explains referencing expectations at AIB (in
• explains issues of academic integrity and how you can avoid plagiarism (in Section 5)
• includes an example of an AIB assignment with feedback/comments (in Appendix A).
2. TEN-STEP APPROACH TO WRITING ASSIGNMENTS
The following provides a recommended ten-step approach to writing assignments. It is strongly
recommended that you follow these steps in sequential order in order to address your
Step 1. Read, understand and address the assignment question
Carefully read the assignment question and make sure you understand clearly what is being
asked. Your submission must be responsive to the assignment question. By doing this you will
know what you need to do, how to do it and whether you need some form of assistance to
finish the assignment.
Furthermore, make sure you check the word count and make sure you understand what is
required. The word count should be used as a guide as to the desired length of your written
Then, consider the subject of the assignment and who will read it. Do the assignment
instructions suggest that the assignment should be aimed at a particular manager of a
particular organisation? If no particular manager is mentioned in the instructions, assume that
the marker/instructor will be the audience. Whoever the reader is, aim the assignment at your
audience and keep in mind their requirements and knowledge.
Step 2. Do background reading and jot down notes
Do some brief background reading around the topic, starting with your textbook, jotting down
the main concepts and ideas that seem relevant. Is there any relevant history related to your
©Australian Institute of Business. 3 V12Feb2016
topic? Or is there any important detail that will be of high significance to the future? Are there
any important people involved? Knowing such details will give you a better idea as to how to
start and finish your assignment.
Step 3. Organise your assignment
Make a tentative, organised list of headings and some sub-headings and topics about important
issues that will have to be addressed. Inform yourself as to how Table of Contents (TOC) fields
are formatted in MS Word, or other word processing application you may be using; and how to
update the page numbers for your Table of Contents as your composition grows and evolves.
Fine-tune your listing of subject headings as you start gathering information about the
assignment’s topics. Organisation is always the key to a well-written assignment. It not only
gives you direction as you write, but it also gives your paper a certain level of professionalism.
Step 4. Collate information and note your sources for proper referencing
Gather information from articles and other credible sources (preferably from peer reviewed
journal articles). Take notes and write down reference information about your sources (you
may forget or lose them, otherwise). The AIB Style Guide has details of what information is
required for referencing in the assignment; make sure you collect all that information when you
first have your hands on the source of information. Collecting all the necessary information for
proper referencing as soon as you encounter the source will save you precious time during the
course of your writing. The list will also come in handy if you want to double check information.
Step 5. Organise your notes bearing in mind the marking criteria
Organise your notes and finalise the outline with its headings and sub-headings and topics.
Consult the assignment details and the marking criteria for your assignment (with their
weightings for various criteria). Bear these in mind as you plan and write the assignment.
Comparing your outline with the assignment details will let you know if you have covered
everything that the assignment requires or if you have included something that is irrelevant. It
will give you a chance to finalise your outline before proceeding with the actual writing.
Step 6. Start writing the assignment
Then, and only then, start writing the assignment in the appropriate format. AIB assignments
are written in standard report format. Remember to note the sources of information as you
write; after all, you have to ensure you place appropriate in-text citations in your report. We
recommend you use the Office Word Format/Font command set to a modern sans serif font
(For example, Calibri 12 point, which is the font used in this document or Arial 12 point), and
the Format/Paragraph command set to 1.5 line spacing. Details about report format,
referencing and writing style can be found in the AIB Style Guide.
©Australian Institute of Business. 4 V12Feb2016
Step 7. Re-read and re-write your assignment
Re-writing is essential. Make sure you add or delete appropriate words or paragraphs and
check the spelling and grammar. Prior to re-writing, read and re-read your draft. Check whether
the flow of thoughts is clear and maintains continuity. Check for any grammatical errors,
spelling mistakes and/or improper use of periods, commas or question marks. Make sure you
read your assignment carefully to check for errors or omissions. Lastly, ensure that you adhere
to the required word count, and add/delete words as necessary.
Step 8. Write the Executive Summary
Now write the Executive Summary. This is the summary of the entire assignment. Include only
salient points of your assignment. It is called a summary because it is supposed to be brief and
Step 9. List the references
Add a formal Reference List according to the requirements of the AIB Style Guide.
Step 10. Submit the assignment
Submit the assignment to AIB. Remember to provide a word count on the title page; the word
count includes all text from the Introduction section through to the beginning of the References
section (that is, do not include the Executive Summary/Abstract, References or Appendices in
the word count).
©Australian Institute of Business. 5 V12Feb2016
3. BASIC FORMAT OF AIB ASSIGNMENTS
Assignments (and projects) at AIB should be submitted using a report format. The basic sections
of the report format are listed below. You are required to follow this format–unless the
assignment details for a particular subject specifically ask you to use a different format.
Details about the report format are available in the AIB Style Guide.
4. WORD COUNT
Assignments must adhere to the word count length specified in the task.
You are allowed a 10% tolerance to either exceed or fall short of the required word length of an
assignment. Hence, you need to write an assignment with the required word count plus or
It is important to note that you will be penalised if you go beyond the 10% above or below the
word count. The penalty is in the form of marks being deducted. For every 1% that the total
word count deviates from the allowed tolerance, the student will lose 1% of the overall mark
for that assignment (as detailed in AIB’s Assessment Policy available on the AIB website).
Word count follows the system below:
• Words are counted as any grouping of letters together, single letter words, numbers and
• Hyphenated words are counted as one word.
• Charts, tables and diagrams appearing in text are counted as one word only.
Title page – Please include:
Table of Contents
2. <heading >
©Australian Institute of Business. 6 V12Feb2016
• In-text referencing appears in the body of the assignment and is therefore counted.
• Word count does not include everything in the assignment. Word count starts from the
‘Introduction’ through to the start of the ‘Reference List’. This means that the:
o Title page is not counted
o Executive Summary is not counted
o Table of Contents is not counted
o Reference List is not counted
o Appendices are not counted.
5. REFERENCING IN AIB ASSIGNMENTS
AIB requires appropriate referencing in all assignments. The AIB Style Guide provides detailed
information about referencing requirements and presents examples.
Referencing other writers’ work demonstrates the breadth of the background work that has
gone into an assignment, shows the reader the source of any facts or information you are
quoting, allows verification of your data and strengthens your academic argument. Good
referencing contributes to improved assignment outcomes.
5.1 The importance and relevance of referencing
In an academic environment you are (nearly) always required to use referencing. You may
wonder why academic study includes a focus on referencing. Or you may wonder why AIB (‘the
practical business school’) insists on referencing in assignments and projects.
Referencing is a way to acknowledge the sources you use in the development of your thinking
about an assignment and during the writing of an assignment. Referencing is normal practice
and a standard skill learnt during academic study.
For a very long time already it has been practice in the academic world to clearly articulate
which parts of your work are derived from other people and, alternatively, which parts of your
work constitute your own contribution to a debate. In academia it is the norm to use other
people’s work and then build on that to present original thoughts and ideas. You get rewarded
for summarising other people’s work well; you also get rewarded for original thought. At all
times, you need to show clearly when you are using or building on someone else’s work.
Whether you are copying (e.g. a table), quoting word-for-word, paraphrasing or summarising, it
is standard academic practice to acknowledge your sources through referencing.
©Australian Institute of Business. 7 V12Feb2016
Why referencing in ‘the practical business school’?
Being able to identify good sources of information and effectively use evidence used when
building an argument are important generic skills that are useful for all managers.
In many workplaces sources of evidence or sources of information are not often recognised or
not acknowledged. And yet, whenever you use facts or data, you obtain those from a source
(an annual report, a newspaper article, the Bureau of Statistics, or elsewhere). Whenever you
apply a theory or write about other people’s opinions, you are using someone else’s intellectual
property (which you read in a book or heard in a TED talk or elsewhere).
It is good to learn about referencing and to become aware of different sources of information.
It enables you to ask yourself (or others) important questions when you are reading reports or
memos in the workplace, such as:
• Where did the information come from?
• Whose original idea is this?
• What sources of data were used?
• Are the data sources that are used appropriate?
• Is there better information out there?
While you currently may not use much (if any) referencing in the workplace, use of referencing
for AIB assignments increases your awareness of sources of information and enhances your
managerial skill set.
5.2 Using peer-reviewed / scholarly journal articles
All your references must be from credible sources such as books, peer-reviewed journals,
magazines, company documents and recent articles. Students are highly encouraged to use
peer-reviewed journal articles as this may contribute towards a higher grade. Your assignment
mark will be adversely affected if you use poor references.
Peer review is an academically accepted measure of quality. Peer-reviewed journal articles are
normally considered more credible, authentic and reliable as they are evaluated and
recommended for publication by several experts in the field. It is therefore strongly suggested
that you use the recent peer-reviewed/scholarly articles for your assignment. This will not only
provide you with up-to-date knowledge but will also enable you to produce quality work.
5.3 Using AIB online library resources
A good way of making sure you use quality references is by using the AIB Online Library (i.e.
EBSCO Host) which can be accessed through the learning portal. This database gives you access
to scholarly business journal articles, and additional full text content includes financial data,
books, monographs, major reference works, book digests, conference proceedings, case
studies, investment research reports, industry reports, market research reports, country
reports, company profiles, and SWOT analyses.
©Australian Institute of Business. 8 V12Feb2016
The “Refine Results” option (as shown below) in the AIB Online Library can help you to filter
and view the peer reviewed/scholarly articles. Preferably you should filter the publication date
to within the last 3 to 5 years.
5.4 No or minimal referencing: plagiarism
An absence of (or minimal) referencing usually means that you are plagiarising, that you are
passing off a thought/theory/quote as ‘your own’ when in reality it is not.
Plagiarism constitutes serious academic misconduct. Academics have lost credibility and at
times have lost their jobs when found to be plagiarising. Students found to plagiarise are
penalised and there are cases of students being expelled for repeated academic misconduct.
In order to avoid plagiarism, you are strongly advised to adopt good referencing practices in all
your assignment and project work.
6. ACADEMIC INTEGRITY: AVOIDING PLAGIARISM, COLLUSION, ETC
AIB expects students (as well as staff and adjunct staff) to display high standards of academic
integrity. It is your responsibility to conduct yourself honestly in research, reporting and writing
and to ensure to avoid becoming involved in academic misconduct.
Details of AIB’s approach to academic integrity can be found in the Academic Integrity policy
which is available on the AIB web site.
Breaches of academic integrity include plagiarism, collusion, double submission of work, etc.
©Australian Institute of Business. 9 V12Feb2016
Plagiarism can be defined as submitting another person’s words or ideas as your own or using
someone else’s work in your assignment without appropriate acknowledgement. You must
acknowledge a fact or an idea or a theory as originally coming from someone else. You must
reference the fact/idea/theory.
AIB checks assignments with text-matching software. If your assignment is found to contain
plagiarism you will be investigated for alleged academic misconduct according to AIB Academic
In order to avoid plagiarism, please carefully check your assignments before final submission to
ensure that all quoted and paraphrased materials are properly cited and referenced.
Collusion refers to a situation where a student who advertently or inadvertently assists, or is
assisted by another student with assessment work that should have been the work of an
individual student. This includes a student giving or sharing an assessment with another
student, making an assessment available to others for potential use, using an assessment
written by someone else and writing an assessment together. Collusion comprises any way of
submitting assessment work as if it reflects individual effort while in reality it includes the work
of another person, as determined by AIB. It is not academic misconduct if the assessment
instructions specifically identify the work as a group assessment; however, collusion occurs if
two or more students fail to abide by directions from the examiner regarding the permitted
level of collaboration on an assessment. Students must not publish their work or related AIB
materials (such as publishing their assignments or assessment questions online or in chat
Double submission of work
This occurs when a student submits substantially the same piece of work for more than one
subject unless agreed upon with the facilitators of the different subjects.
©Australian Institute of Business. 10 V12Feb2016
APPENDIX A – EXAMPLE ASSIGNMENT WITH ADDED COMMENTS
Title: Entrepreneurship and corporations
The characteristics of a typical entrepreneur are irreconcilable with a corporate career.
Large organisations are by their nature bureaucratic and as such promote an
environment in which the entrepreneur cannot survive.
Prepare a brief report in which you survey the arguments for and against the above statement,
and then justify your own position. In your answer, provide examples of entrepreneurs and
corporate managers, from your reading and your own experience, to illustrate the points you
are making. When you refer to an example, provide enough details about the person so that a
reader, who does not know about the person, can understand the points about that person
that you are trying to make. You will have to provide a definition of entrepreneurship in the
introduction to your paper.
Word count (from the start of the Introduction section to the end of the Conclusion section):
Comment [A1]: Notice that the font is
appropriately set to 12 point Calibri or 12
point Arial, with 1.5 line spacing.
Comment [A2]: The assignment topic is
placed here just in case the marker did not
have the assignment topic handy when he
or she was marking the assignment.
Comment [A3]: Please note that you
need to make sure to meet the word limit
requirements for your assignment.
©Australian Institute of Business. 11 V12Feb2016
Entrepreneurship and corporate structures appear to be incompatible. This paper considers
that apparent compatibility and concludes that entrepreneurship and corporate structures can
be compatible in some cases. The paper first defines entrepreneurship and characteristics of
entrepreneurs. It then looks at why these entrepreneurs may not fit into corporations. It then
establishes that some corporations can incorporate entrepreneurs in what is called corporate
entrepreneurship. Examples like Kerry Packer and Richard Branson are used to illustrate the
Comment [A4]: This summary is only
about 60 words and it is usually one or two
paragraphs of only 100 or so words. But it
covers the main points well enough, albeit
Comment [A5]: Nice short sentence
that orients the reader to the main idea of
©Australian Institute of Business. 12 V12Feb2016
Table of contents
2. What is entrepreneurship? ………………………………………………………………………………..xx
3. The characteristics of an entrepreneur………………………………………………………………..xx
4. Compatibility of entrepreneurial characteristics with a corporate career………………..xx
5. Corporate entrepreneurship ………………………………………………………………………………xx
6. Conclusion ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….xx
©Australian Institute of Business. 13 V12Feb2016
Entrepreneurs are typically thought to start up small businesses that confront bigger and older
business. For example, Virgin Air is a small specialist airline that attracts some customers away
from more established airlines. But is this picture of entrepreneurs correct?
The aim of this paper is to investigate whether the characteristics of an entrepreneur are
irreconcilable with a corporate career and whether the bureaucratic nature of large
organisations promotes an environment where the entrepreneur cannot survive.
The paper has three main sections. Firstly, I will define entrepreneurship. Then I will assess the
characteristics of entrepreneurs and their fit within a corporate management structure, and
then analyse the concept of corporate entrepreneurship. The conclusion ties the arguments
together into a final position about the place of entrepreneurship within some, though not all,
2. What is entrepreneurship?
To begin the discussion, entrepreneurship needs to be defined. Our textbook has this
comprehensive definition that is not limited to small business ventures and so is appropriate for
this general discussion: “An entrepreneur is an innovator or developer who recognises and
seizes opportunities; converts those opportunities into workable/marketable ideas; adds value
through time, effort, money or skills; assumes the risks of the competitive marketplace to
implement these ideas; and realises the rewards from these efforts” (Kuratko & Hodgetts 2007,
p. 32). Note that this paper follows that definition’s emphasis on ‘marketable ideas’ and
focuses on new ideas and creative solutions in business situations, to delimit the discussion to
the word limit of the assignment.
One disadvantage of adopting this rather general definition of entrepreneurship is that there
are as many as six schools of thought that focus on just one of these many activities of
entrepreneurs (Kuratko & Hodgetts 2007). Most entrepreneurs and entrepreneurial activity
must have regard for each of these six schools of thought. However, there are clear examples of
individual entrepreneurs who are influenced more strongly by a particular school of thought.
For example, the displacement school helps explain why John Ilham was a driving force behind
his Crazy John mobile phone retail business. He grew up in a struggling, migrant family and
suffered racist taunts at school. He claimed that his commitment to focusing on opportunities
Comment [A6]: This Introduction is
appropriately short. It should be about half
a page at the most.
Comment [A7]: These very few
sentences give the background to the
assignment and orient the reader to what
the assignment is all about.
Comment [A8]: The Introduction
should say explicitly what its aim, objective
or goal is near the beginning, just like this
Comment [A9]: The use of first person
“I” should be avoided, e.g. First, the
entrepreneurship will be defined followed
by assessing the characteristics of ….
Comment [A10]: The Introduction
should very briefly outline the assignment.
This paragraph about the sections is slightly
too long. But this summary about the
sections is good in that it says something
about the final conclusion to which the
whole assignment is heading.
Comment [A11]: Note that there is a
capital letter at the start of only the first
word in this and all the headings. This is
Comment [A12]: This delimitation is OK
provided it is justified (which it is here in
the comment about the word limit)
Comment [A13]: The examples are
very good and were asked for in the
The assignment says explicitly things like
‘For example,..’ This shows the linkage
between the ideas and what the examples
©Australian Institute of Business. 14 V12Feb2016
was cemented when a primary school teacher told him: “As for you young man, you have not
got much of a future” (‘John Ilham Biography’ n.d.).
In turn, Richard Branson appears to be a champion of the venture opportunity school of
thought. Branson has taken his Virgin brand over enormous territory (music, airlines, mobile
phones, financial services etc.) (‘Richard Branson Virgin Group’ n.d.). He has developed a
business method he refers to as branded venture capital where-by the major thrust of his
activities is to recognise opportunities, develop companies to realise those opportunities under
the Virgin brand while partners provide most of the investment.
In brief, entrepreneurship is a complex and wide-ranging set of activities.
3. The characteristics of an entrepreneur
Considerable research has been undertaken regarding common attributes of successful
entrepreneurs (Timmons & Spinelli 2007). In one study, high achieving entrepreneurs claimed
that there were three principle reasons behind their success: the ability to respond positively to
challenges and learn from mistakes, personal initiative, and great perseverance and
determination. In addition, Timmons and Spinnelli (2007) state that the many characteristics of
entrepreneurs can be segmented into some core, desirable and non-entrepreneurial attributes.
Core attributes include commitment and determination, leadership, opportunity obsession, risk
tolerance, creativity and adaptability, and the motivation to succeed. Desirable attributes
include the capacity to inspire, intelligence, appropriate values, and emotional stability. Nonentrepreneurial attributes include impulsiveness, perfectionist tendencies, authoritarianism and
Note that entrepreneurs do not seem to be driven intensely by financial benefits. In fact, most
entrepreneurs desire greater autonomy, broader skill utilisation and the possibility to pursue
their own ideas rather than financial rewards (Benz 2006).
Having now established the skills, characteristics and attributes most likely to be found in
entrepreneurs, we will now assess the compatibility of those skills with a corporate career.
Comment [A14]: This is the citation of
an Internet source and the n.d. means no
date because the date of the creation or
last revision of the Internet source is not
known. If it was known, the date should
have been put in there.
Refer to the AIB Style Guide for how all
these citations and references are to be
Comment [A15]: This short summary of
the position that the student is trying to
establish is a good idea.
Comment [A16]: Correctly, this
paragraph is the only one-sentence
paragraph in the whole document.
Paragraphs should usually have around
three or four sentences about one idea.
Comment [A17]: This theme sentence
at the start of the paragraph summarises
what the whole paragraph is about, is very
useful and strongly recommended for your
Comment [A18]: A short sentence that
summarises what has been established and
introduces the next section is OK.
©Australian Institute of Business. 15 V12Feb2016
4. Compatibility of entrepreneurial characteristics with a corporate career
Most large organisations tend to be highly structured and hierarchical with a hierarchy that
facilitates effective monitoring of performance and control (Casson 1994). Job requirements
are clearly defined, accountability is clear and the chain of command is known. However, this
control system will block the wide-ranging and innovative nature of entrepreneurs described
above. They would be likely to find their commitment and determination restricted within their
job specification. Their inclination to identify opportunity may be suppressed by conservative
managers who hold more senior positions within the organisation structure. Their motivation
may be suppressed by the organisation setting low, achievable and unchanging goals.
For example, Ray Borda, proprietor of Macro Meats, is an entrepreneur who was not able to
survive in the traditional organisation structure. Borda established a chain of pet shops in South
Australia in the 1980’s known as Petstop. Whilst the chain was popular, Borda rolled the stores
out at a faster rate than company profits justified and he was eventually declared bankrupt.
Borda returned to the salaried work force in a company that sold kangaroo meat for pet
consumption throughout SA.
However, Borda then identified an emerging opportunity to provide kangaroo meat for the
human consumption market. Despite his vision, Borda was unable to convince management of
the company to change direction. Consequently, Borda took his vision outside of the company
and successfully convinced some investors to purchase the company and change its direction.
Today, Macro Meat is the largest wholesaler and retailer of human consumption kangaroo
meat in Australia.
Another frustration that may be encountered by those with entrepreneurial attributes would
be to find themselves in an organisation owned and/or controlled by an entrepreneur who
does not require the organisation to be entrepreneurial. He just needs the organisation to
support his creativity and innovation.
For example, Kerry Packer built an empire on the back of his own capacity to sense opportunity
(‘Kerry Packer: Empire builder’ 2005). His recognition of the commercial potential of cricket, his
affinity for knowing when to sell and buy, his intricate understanding of the television and
Comment [A19]: Where is the citation
and reference for this story? It should be
included. How can we believe the story
without its source being provided?
©Australian Institute of Business. 16 V12Feb2016
media market and his recognition of the emerging power of the wagering and gaming market
are all examples of his entrepreneurial capacity. But, for all of this, there is little evidence of
entrepreneurial behaviour being practised below him in the organisation structure. Instead,
Packer tended to surround himself with skilled but loyal lieutenants who concentrated on the
implementation of his vision.
In brief, evidence seems to show that those with entrepreneurial attributes are likely to find
that traditional corporate organisations restrict their natural attributes and so detract from
their job satisfaction level. But the budding entrepreneur may still have scope as the next
section about corporate entrepreneurship shows.
5. Corporate entrepreneurship
Nevertheless, there are some organisations where those with entrepreneurial tendencies are
encouraged and are able to flourish. One of the world’s most successful advertising agencies,
Crispin, Porter and Bogusky, is an example (‘Chuck Porter Crispin, Porter + & Bogusky’ n.d.).
Although employing 300 people at its Miami USA base, the company has a very flat
organisation structure. Chuck Porter, senior partner, has discouraged subservience and
promotes creativity and interaction. Departments that work most with each other are located
furthest apart so as to encourage people to move and develop large internal networks and
relationships. Day to day management is kept to the minimum. Porter is quoted as stating: “We
make sure we employ people as smart as us and don’t try to manage people; really good
people are unmanageable anyway” (‘Chuck Porter Crispin, Porter & Bogusky’ n.d.).
The emerging influence of this kind of corporate entrepreneurship is likely to intensify as the
world’s economy continues to become more competitive and more demanding. More
managers will be expected to develop the drive and enthusiasm of entrepreneurs and more
entrepreneurs will be expected to learn the methodical disciplines of the manager (Heller
Thus corporate entrepreneurship is an attempt to take the mindset and the skill set of the startup entrepreneur and seed these characteristics into the culture and activities of a large
company. Indeed, “corporate entrepreneurship is quickly becoming a weapon of choice for
Comment [A20]: Another good theme
sentence that introduces the paragraph
Comment [A21]: This and all the other
examples are great.
©Australian Institute of Business. 17 V12Feb2016
many large companies” (Thornberry 2002, p. 201). Corporate entrepreneurship can offset large
company staleness, lack of innovation and the inertia that often takes over large, mature
For example, Rupert Murdoch is a recognised entrepreneur who believes there is a relationship
between change, competing and innovation. He also believes that organisations need to be
structured and equipped to act innovatively. Once he said “The world is changing very fast, big
will not beat small anymore, it will be the fast beating the slow” (‘Rupert Murdoch’ n.d.).
Of course, not all big businesses are capable of corporate entrepreneurship. To do it,
businesses must follow four steps: (1) set explicit goals, (2) establish a system of feedback and
reinforcement, (3) place an emphasis on individual responsibility and (4) reward results. Thus
the concept needs to be anchored in procedures, structures and systems. Recruitment,
management development and flexible job content need to complement the overall change
(Jansen & Van Wees 1994).
From the evidence above, we can conclude that many entrepreneurs would find traditional
corporate organisations stifling because of their creative and innovative inclinations. However,
the emerging acceptance of corporate entrepreneurship as a management concept to deal with
a fast changing and globalised economy provides considerable scope for those with
entrepreneurial qualities. Properly developed, corporate entrepreneurship can incorporate
entrepreneurs who will have management discipline as well as flair and innovation.
Benz, M 2006, The international entrepreneurship and management journal, Springer, Boston.,
viewed 17 December 2007, http://springerlink.com/content/klh7535q0864817v/.
Casson, M 1994, International journal of the economics of business, vol. 1, no. 1, viewed 17
December 2007, http://informaworld.com/smpp/content-content=a758540499.
‘Chuck Porter Crispin, Porter + Bogusky’ n.d., 26 Most fascinating entrepreneurs, Inc. Magazine,
viewed 17 December 2007, http://www.inc.com/mazazine/20050401/26-porter.html.
Comment [A22]: Note that the student
first put his ideas into his own words in the
previous sentence, before introducing the
supporting quotations. This approach
shows the student had thought about the
meaning of the quotation and had
incorporated it into his own thinking. In
other words, he was not ‘free-loading’ off
Comment [A23]: This short conclusion
quickly summarises what has been done
above and then comes to the concluding
position of the whole assignment.
Comment [A24]: This final sentence
sums up what the whole assignment has
achieved – very good.
Comment [A25]: The
Recommendations section normally goes
here after Conclusion and before
References but the assignment topic did
not ask for one and so the student did not
offer one. The student may have opted to
do so if the assignment was about an
organisational strategy or a managerial
Comment [A26]: Refer to the AIB Style
Guide for more examples of how to
reference the citations.
©Australian Institute of Business. 18 V12Feb2016
Heller, R 2006, Entrepreneurial management: what’s the difference between management and
entrepreneurship?, viewed 17 December 2007,
Jansen, PGW & Van Wees, LLGM 1994, ‘Conditions for internal entrepreneurship’, Journal of
Management and Development, vol.13, no. 9.
‘John Ilham biography’ n.d., Woopidoo Biographies Business Leaders, viewed 17 December
‘Kerry Packer: empire builder’ ABC News Online 27 December 2005, viewed 17 December 2007,
‘Kerry Packer biography’ n.d., Woopidoo Biographies Business Leaders, viewed 17 December
Kuratko, DF & Hodgetts RM 2006, Entrepreneurship: theory/process/practice, 7th edn, Thomson
South Western, Mason.
Richard Branson Virgin Group n.d., ‘26 Most fascinating entrepreneurs’, Inc. Magazine, viewed
17 December 2007, http://www.inc.com/manazine/20050401/26-branson.html.
‘Rupert Murdoch’ n.d., Woopidoo Biographies Business Leaders, viewed 17 December 2007,
Thornberry, N 2003, ‘Corporate entrepreneurship: teaching managers to be entrepreneurs’,
Journal of Management Development, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 23–34.
Timmons, JA & Spinelli, S 2007, New venture creation entrepreneurship for the 21st century, 7th
edn, McGraw-Hill Irwin, New York.
(Thanks to the AIB MBA student whose assignment provided the foundation for this exemplar.)
Please note: The above example does not purport to represent a comprehensive step by step
guide regarding how to write a good assignment. Different subjects and different assignments
may have different requirements. There are many alternative acceptable approaches to
assignment writing other than those outlined here. If in doubt, please contact AIB Support.
Comment [A27]: The page numbers of
an article should have been included here.
It is acceptable to not have page numbers
for an Internet reference because it is
often hard to determine their page
numbers, but an article from a journal
should include the page numbers.
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