Augmented Reality San Diego Office of Violence Prevention accordance with academic conventions BSBFIM502: Assessment 1 BSBFIM502…

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Student’s Name and CSU ID
Sample (1) Created by the Subject Lecturer
Project Type
Practical
Project Name
Augmented Reality Navigation in Knee Replacement Surgery
Technology
Augmented Reality
Techniques
Navigation
Domain
Knee Replacement Surgery
NOTE: The guidelines in GRAY color and the sample in BLUE color
Sample (1) with an Explanation (GUIDELINES) of Each Section
Reference in APA format that will be in ‘Reference List’ (This give the Reference of the Journal Paper you are working on it)
<Author’s surname and first name, year of publication, Paper topic, Journal name, volume no., issue no.., pages range. DOI>. e.g. Murugesan Y, Alsadoon A, Paul M, Chandana P. A novel rotational matrix and translation Vector (RMaTV) algorithms: geometric accuracy for augmented reality (AR) in oral and maxillofacial surgeries. International journal of medical robotic and computer assisted surgery. 2018;1(1):6. https://doi.org/10.1002/rcs.1889
Citation that will be in the content
<Author’s surname and publication year> e.g. (Murugesan et al., 2018)
URL of the Reference
Level of Journal (Q1, Q2, …Qn)
Keywords in this Reference
<place the URL of the paper> e.g.https://doi.org/10.1002/rcs.1889
<Use the ‘Journal Ranking’ excel file, and check the level of the journal, and place it here> e.g. Q2
<the keywords are available in the journal after abstract section> e.g. 3D image, 3D–2D image registration, augmented reality, image matching, oral and maxillofacial surgery
The Name of the Current Solution (Technique/ Method/ Scheme/ Algorithm/ Model/ Tool/ Framework/ … etc )
The Goal (Objective) of this Solution & What is the Problem that need to be solved
What are the components of it?
Technique/Algorithm name: <Suppose your project topic is related to navigation techniques, then you need to find the name of the navigation technique that is proposed by (used by) the author in each paper you review. You also need to give the abbreviation for this technique that given in the paper you review > e.g. Rotational matrix and translation vector (RMTV) algorithm Tools: e.g. 2 stereo cameras and a translucent mirror Matlab has used to implement the work Applied Area: <Suppose your domain is navigation the anatomy of the body during the surgery, you need to mention which type of surgery. What is the issue in this area that needs to be solved?. What is the solution given in this area > e.g.: Applied area: oral and maxillofacial surgeries Problem of using the technology in this area: (From abstract);accuracy and depth perception of the augmented video. (From Proposed Solution);The main issues are accuracy, processing time, image registration, depth perception and occlusion handling. Given Solution in this area (Contribution): (From abstract);This solution provides an acceptable range of accuracy with a shorter operating time, which provides surgeons with a smooth surgical flow. From Proposed Solution);enhanced ICP algorithm to overcome the geometric error. From Proposed Solution); propose a new rotational matrix and translation vector (RMaTV) algorithm to remove the geometric error.
Problem: <What is the problem in each paper you review that the author wanted to solve. You can find it in the first paragraph in the abstract>e.g. Augmented realitybased surgeries have not been successfully implemented in oral and maxillofacial areas due to limitations in geometric accuracy and image registration.Goal: <Why the author wanted to solve the problem. What is his goal? What is the value of solving him this problem? You can find it in the first paragraph in the abstract >e.g. (From abstract);improve the accuracy and depth perception of the augmented video. (From Proposed Solution);The aim to minimize the geometric error (also called alignment error) that commonly occurs during Iterative Closest Point (ICP) refinement.
<What are the components of the system/model. Place the components as a bullet points only without any explanation.> e.g. The system consists of three major stages : Pre-operative environment, Intra-operative environment, and Pose refinement.
The Process (Mechanism) of this Work; The process steps of the Technique/system
<what are the process steps/stages of the proposed solution. Use green colour for the step that shows the author contribution, and gives the best feature. What is the step that give the limitation (Use red colour for this step) > The good features and limitations in each work, will based on YOUR ANALYSIS (Your Critical Thinking). You need to Identify the problems of the techniques you are working that used with the selected technology in your domain. e.g. Identify the distinguished feature and the problem of each visualisation technique that used with mixed reality (MR) technology in Surgery guidance in operation room (OR). e.g. Pre-operative environmentProcess Steps Advantage (Purpose of this step) Disadvantage (Limitation/Challenge)
<The process step of the technique you set, and HOW it is work in each step here) <What is the advantage of each step … WHY they consider this step in the technique, WHAT does it do> <Is there any limitation of this step … ANALYSE the work> 1 The patient’s CT scan data are segmented and a model of hierarchy or an aspect graph (offline phase) is created. The aspect graph creates different segmented models from CT scan images which, in this stage, can be matched to the real time video with different angles and alternative viewpoints. N/A 2 A CT scan report is superior to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI has superior capabilities to identify soft tissue, while a CT scan is preferable in cancer detection because it provides details about bone and nerve structures. N/Ae.g. Intra-operative environmentProcess Steps Advantage (Purpose of this step) Disadvantage (Limitation/Challenge) 1 Two stereo cameras are introduced to capture real-time videos in the intra-operative space, together with a translucent mirror for the AR N/A 2 The hierarchy model will create a list of images from the stereo camera on 5 levels and store these in a separate file.
N/A 3 The video will be sent through a TLD algorithm to find and segment the exact location of the surgical area. N/A 4 Once the TLD has found a precisely matching bounding box the online matching starts by analyzing and matching the aspect graphs that were created during the offline phase. The search continues until the lowest level of the image is reached.
N/A 5 The result is compared and matched with the segment of images from the pre-operative scene to find exact nerve channels and tissue areas.
N/A 6 Two stereo cameras are included in this stage to improve the depth perception in AR videos. N/A 7 The stereo camera will be fixed on the 3D display screen The patient’s body can appear translucent to the stereo camera via the translucent mirror. Then the camera videos will be superimposed onto the 3D display with the image registration results to create a 3D pose. N/Ae.g. Pos refinementProcess Steps Advantage (Purpose of this step) Disadvantage (Limitation/Challenge) 1 ICP algorithm is used to carry out pose refinement. This has done by the technique of point to point to create an accurate 3D structure Error metric defines the objective function which is minimized in every iteration of the ICP algorithm in level 5 by the technique of point to point. Actually, this slows down the system and is prone to error. 2 The refined 3D pose and the camera video stream will be projected onto the display device creates an AR video.
Validation Criteria (Measurement Criteria)
Validate (Measure) the solution in each journal paper as below: How to measure the technique?. Effectiveness of each work should be quantified. What are the parameters (Dependent variables) you are going to use in assessing you the techniques?; e.g. accuracy, tissue classification, depth perception, speed … etc. When you identify the ‘Dependent Variables’ in each work, you need to identify the parameters (independent variables) that will measure each dependent variable. e.g. what are the parameters in each work to measure accuracy. Dependent Variable Independent Variable <Dependent variables you can find them in RESULTS section of the journal paper … Check what they have measured … it will be very clear in bar graphs, diagrams, tables in RESULTS section> <The dependant variables you can find them in Proposed Section … Please check each dependant variable you found it in results section, how they measured in “Proposed method “section; it is very clear in mathematical equations> e.g. Accuracy e.g. overlay errors This work improves the video accuracy by 0.30–0.40 mm (in terms of overlay error) e.g. Processing Time e.g. frames per second The processing rate for this solution to 10–13 frames/s compared to 7–10 frames/s in existing systems
Input and Output
Critical Thinking: Feature of this work, and Why (Justify)
Critical Thinking: Limitations of the research current solution, and Why (Justify)
Input (Data) Output (View) Mainly: What is the type of data that should be used for each solution?. e.g. Mainly o Dimensionality: 1D, 2D, 3D, 4D. Specific: What is the type of data that is related to above main that will be used in each solution? . e.g. Raw imaging data ; acquisition sensor, (e.g. CT, MRI, fMRI), Visually processed data; semantic, (e.g. Strategic, operational), Derived data; underlying process, (e.g. tumour volume measurement), Analysed imaging data; data primitive, (e.g. points, line, contour) e.g. Dimensionality: 3D Raw imaging data ; acquisition sensor, (CT)
What will be the output after processing the input by the techniques?. Mainly: How it should be the best be displayed and interacted with?, e.g. Mixed reality ; (augmented reality, virtual reality) Specific: How it should be the best be displayed and interacted with?, e.g. Perception Location; Location, (e.g. Patient, surgical tool, real environment, display device), Display; Device, (e.g. 2D technology, laser, microscope, colour glasses), Interaction tool; Hardware tools, (e.g. Keyboard, surgical tool) e.g. 3D Real Time Augmented Video
<Analyze the solution and find What is the good features in this work based on your goal, , and WHY got this good feature. Based on Critical thinking, each paper you are working on it, compare it with other you reviewed and provide YOUR OPINION if it is better on not than others you reviewed. You also MUST to JUSTIFY why it is better or why not … always link with your goal when you analyze>
e.g. Contribution: This solution provides an acceptable range of accuracy with a shorter operating time, which provides surgeons with a smooth surgical flow.
<Analyze the solution and find what is/are the limitation/s of it, and WHY got this limitation > e.g. Critical thinking and analysis: Error metric defines the objective function which is minimized in every iteration of the ICP algorithm in level 5 by the technique of point to point. Actually, this slows down the system and is prone to error. Justification and suggested solution: Point to plane calculates the sum of data points up to the tangent plane where matched model resides. Thus, point to plane minimization helps to slide flat regions. Estimated tangent normal at each model point will minimize the error metric function
(Describe the research/current solution)
Evaluation Criteria
How this research/current solution is valuable for your project
< Describe the research by showing what the author has done to bring good feature in this work. What is the author contribution ; how his solution is different from the current solution in this paper > (Murugesan et al., 2018) what the author has done : enhanced the ICP with rotational matrix and translation vector (RMaTV) algorithm to downgrade the geometrical error. What is the author contribution: They offer a solution to the problem by using of the two-stereo camera has improved the depth perception. This solution conducted research by integrating 3D-2D shape matching into TLD, and ICP for real-time model registration and for further refinement of the overlaid with RMaTV algorithm. how his solution is different from the current solution in this paper: It provides an accuracy of 0.30 to 0.40 mm (overly error) and a processing time of 7 to 10 frames per second, respectively
<Validate the major entities of each system. Prove the usefulness and the value of the system in your project domain for the end user. > e.g. This solution provides an acceptable range of accuracy with a shorter operating time, which provides surgeons with a smooth surgical flow.
<Link the ‘Describe research & limitation sections’ in writing you the how this solution is valuable for the project>. e.g. whilst the video accuracy improvement by 0.30–0.40 mm (in terms of overlay error), and processing rate to 10–13 frames/s compared to 7–10 frames/s in existing systems, the cutting error hasn’t considered in this work. As a result, the accuracy in term of overly error is accepted, but the cutting error is missing that need to be considered to solve the issues of navigation with AR when cutting bones in a scheduled direction and depth.
Diagram/Flowchart
<Place all diagrams, flowchart that are related to proposed work> e.g.
Reference in APA format that will be in ‘Reference List’ (This give the Reference of the Key Journal Paper/s that the author selected and improve them (State of art of his work))
<State of art solution of this paper> e.g. Wang J, Suenaga H, Yang L, Kobayashi E, Sakuma I. Video see‐through augmented reality for oral and maxillofacial surgery. Int J Med Robotics Comput Assist Surg. 2016;1010‐1020.
Citation that will be in the content
e.g. Wang et al (2016)
How to work on your Literature Review (LR)?
In your literature review, for each journal paper you are going to work on it, you need to find the sub-component (Sub-classes/sub-factors) as below:
First – Collect your resources (journal papers), and classify them in the domain of (Technology, Technique, and Domain).
e.g. you are going to classify each of your components in our sample; Data, Visualisation, and View.
If we would like to classify the ‘Data’ as an example, we can classify it based on our sample to:
Preoperative data set of multiple modalities
Functional data
Vascular
Organs
Bones

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Intraoperative Data set and to the patient in operation room (OR)
Second – Validate and evaluate each journal paper as below:
Validation (Measurement Criteria):
How to measure the technique?.
Effectiveness of each work should be quantified. What are the parameters you are going to use in assessing you the techniques?; e.g. accuracy, tissue classification, depth perception, speed … etc.
E.g. the parameters to assess the visualisation technique in our samples are accuracy and processing time (speed).
You also need to be very specific when you give the evaluation parameters, e.g. you should be very specific which accuracy you measure, registration accuracy, tracking accuracy, visualisation accuracy … etc.

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Evaluation:
Validate the major entities of each system. Prove the usefulness and the value of the system in your domain for the end user.
e.g. the end user in our sample is the surgeon, to evaluate one of the system based on the usefulness for the surgeon: The system help the surgeon to understand the spatial relationship between anatomical structure better

Measurement Validation and Evaluation
e.g. direct measurement, physical measurement, animals … etc.

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The purpose of this evaluation is to allow future developers to recognise which components can be used that need of improvement or new solutions.
In each journal paper, how you compare the proposed system with the state of art (previous work)?
You need to find the aspects that the proposed technique focus on (emphasized).

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