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Biological Sciences
Title of Resource: Handle with Care – Primary Connections
Levels: F-2
Sub-strand: Biological Science
Key Concepts
Living things have a variety of external features and live in different places where their basic needs, including food, water and shelter are met. (VCSSU042) To recognise common features of animals e.g. head, legs and wings To recognise that different living things in different places for e.g. land and water 
Alternate Conceptions
Plants are not living things, because they don’t move. (common alternative about insects (n.d.)) Male animals are always bigger and stronger than females. (common alternative about insects (n.d.)) Insects has six legs, attached to the abdomen. (common alternative about insects (n.d.)) The first stage of each life cycle is the egg: Labelling the egg as the first stage (common alternative about insects (n.d.))
Source (Reference for this resource)
Lesson 1: Handle with Care – Staying Alive Foundation Year, Biological Sciences. Australian Academy of Science (2012) Primary Connections. Retrieved from: https://lms.latrobe.edu.au/pluginfile.php/4788429/mod_resource/content/0/Foundation%20%28Biology%29%20Staying_alive.pdf    
Other Key Resources (References)
Common Alternative conceptions about Insects: Retrieved on 27th October from: https://www.oesd114.org/site/handlers/filedownload.ashx?moduleinstanceid=1485&dataid=3295&FileName=Common%20Alternative%20Conceptions%20Insects.pdf  
Connections to the Readings, Tutorials etc
In week 5, the lecture covers the biological sciences (living things and their environments) it talks about children’s conceptions, one of them being “having great difficulty deciding If plants are alive, because they are not as obviously mobile as animals.” It also suggests assisting children in building their concept and knowledge of living things and the environment to recognise the different living things in different places. Example: Fish live in water and Zebras live on land.
Relevance and appropriateness of resource
Lesson 1 of Primary connections ‘Handle with Care’ is part of the engage phase of the 5E model as it stimulates students’ interest, curiosity and allows for students to develop further knowledge on their existing beliefs and solving their misconceptions. It allows students to be hands on and learn how different animals have different basic needs including food and water to stay alive.
Outline an appropriate assessment strategy for the resource, i.e. Diagnostic, Formative, Summative and specifics  
Diagnostic Assessment – Important aspect of the Engage phase. Allows teachers to find out the students’ knowledge about living things and their environment.  This resource can be assessed by analysing what students know prior to gaining new knowledge, this gives the teacher an insight on what needs to be focused on in class.
List authentic links with other Learning Areas and Cross-curriculum priorities  
English / Foundation Level / Literacy / Interacting with Others (VCELY175) Descriptor: Deliver short oral presentation to peers, using appropriate voice levels, articulation, body language, gestures and eye contact. (Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority, 2019,VCELY175)   Visual Arts / Foundation Level / Explore and Express Ideas (VCAVAE017) Descriptor: Explore ideas, experiences, observations and imagination to create visual artwork. (Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority, 2019, VCAVAE017)      
Title: Microscopic Beasts
Levels: 5 and 6
Sub-strand: Biological Science
Key Concepts
Living things have structural features and adaptions that help them to survive in their environment (VCSSU074) Describing and listing adaptions of living things suited for particular Australian environments (Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority, 2019, VCSSU074) The growth and survival of living things are affected by the physical condition of their environment (VCSSU075) Investigating how changing the physical conditions for plants impacts on their growth and survival, for example, changing saltwater concentrations, using fertilisers or transferring to a different soil type. (Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority, 2019, VCSSU074)
Alternate Conceptions
Students “tend to focus on negative features of insects, and not recognise insect roles in pollination, decomposition and providing a food source for other animals, in addition to making products for human consumption” (Lecture 5, p.48) refer to (VCSSU075)“Movement and action are the main criteria children use to determine if something is alive” (Lecture 5, p.43) refer to (VCSSU074)That insects, birds, fish, worms and humans are not animals (Monash University, 2017).That all animals can move independently from one place to another (Monash University, 2017).That plants take in all the substance they need to grow through their roots (Monash University, 2017).                                          
Source (Reference for this resource)
Wildlife Sanctuary La Trobe University (2019). Education Experiences: Primary. Retrieved from: https://www.latrobe.edu.au/wildlife/visit/education/primary    
Other Key Resources (References)
Primary Connections Primary Connections (2012). Marvellous Micro-organisms. Australian Academy of Science. Retrieved from: https://lms.latrobe.edu.au/pluginfile.php/4788455/mod_resource/content/0/Year6%20%28Biology%29%20Marvellous_microorganisms.pdf   This resource is relevant as it explores literacy involved with Year 5-6 Biological Science. Students can explore different types of waterbugs.   
Connections to the Readings, Tutorials etc
 In lecture 5, it covers the lifestyle, adaption, and ecology of living things. It includes student common conceptions on insects. It also covers what the explore stage is of the 5E model and the purpose. The explore phase allows students to work collaboratively and are able to investigate, observe, test ideas and explore questions.   In Lecture 7, it discusses collaborative learning strategies. Collaborative learning is having different groups for different situations to make group work more effective with the skills they have. Forming student groups is best done at random, this allows students to work in different groups and to allocate team role, such as; Manager, Speaker and Director. This gives students different roles to work on and allows them to work together as a team to complete different tasks.  
Relevance and appropriateness of resource
This is suitable for the explore phase of the 5E model at the 5 and 6 level of biological sciences. It allows students to experience hands on activities that makes sense and identify different aspects of microorganisms.
Outline an appropriate assessment strategy for the resource, i.e. Diagnostic, Formative, Summative and specifics  
 Formative Assessment is appropriate for the Explore phase of 5E model. This can be assessed by; Checking students are able to recognise the bugs under the microscope as the correct species (Table of different bugs will be provided)Teachers will provide feedback to students about their progress in learning skills and concepts.
List authentic links with other Learning Areas and Cross-curriculum priorities  
English / Level 6 / Literacy / Interacting with others (VCELY366) Descriptor: Participate in and contribute to discussions, clarifying and interrogating ideas, developing and supporting arguments, sharing and evaluating information experiences and opinions, and use interaction skills, varying conventions of spoken interactions according to group size, formality of interaction and needs and expertise of the audience. Using strategies, for example, pausing, questioning, rephrasing, repeating, summarising, reviewing and asking clarifying questions. (Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority, 2019, VCELY366)     Maths / Level 6 / Statistics and Probability / Data representation and Interpretation (VCMNSP235) Descriptor: Construct, interpret and compare a range of data displays, including side-by-side column graph for two categorical variables. Comparing different student-generated diagrams, tables and graphs, describing their similarities and differences and commenting on the usefulness of each representation for interpreting the data. (Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority, 2019, VCMNSP235)  
Title: What’s lurking in the lake (Microscope Analysis)
Levels: 3 and 4
Sub-strand: Biological sciences
Key Concepts
Living things can be grouped on the basis of observable features and can be distinguished from non-living things.Exploring differences between living, once living and products of living things. (Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority, 2019, VCSSU057)/Different living things have different life cycles and depend on each other and the environment to survive.Making and recording observations of living things as they develop through their life cycles, for example, insects, birds, frogs and flowering plants. (Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority, 2019, VCSSU058)
Alternate Conceptions
Is a plant a living organism? Not all living things are animals Not all living things are visible by the eye, by a microscope Each living organism has their own environment Not all animals can thrive in the same environment.
Source (Reference for this resource)
  https://www.latrobe.edu.au/wildlife “What calls a wetland home? Students cooperate to catch aquatic minibeasts from pre-collected samples held in tubs. They will then work together to identify what they have caught.” (La Trobe Wildlife Sanctuary, 2019, What we offer)Instead of having pre-collected samples, students will be tasked with working in groups of three and obtain their own samples, from the wetlands in the La Trobe Wildlife Sanctuary.  
Other Key Resources (References)
Primary Connections: (Feather, Fur or Leaves. Lesson 2, Sorting out life. Year 3 Biology). This activity outlines how students can observe different features between living and non-living organisms.   Aquatic invertebrates are animals without backbones that spend most or all of their life in water. These aquatic invertebrates are vital to the wetland food chains both in terms of recycling, nutrients and providing food for larger animals. The water quality will determine whether or not, the invertebrates are present. Retrieved from: https://www.cen.org.au/wetlands/images/factSheets/wetlandAnimals.pdf  
Connections to the Readings, Tutorials etc
 In Week 5, the lecture talks about Biological sciences, Assessments and the 5E Explore phase. It includes the way children think about living things and their conceptions about them, such as; Life is attributed to plants when they do something associated with movement or growth. Also includes learning about life cycles, adaptions and ecology as children tend to focus on the negative features of insects and not recognise insects’ roles in pollination, decomposition, and providing a food source for other animals.
Relevance and appropriateness of resource
The Explore phase of the 5E model is the most relevant to this resource as it provides students with hands-on experiences of the topic’s science phenomenon and building their science inquiry skills. Students have a chance to explore ideas, collective evidence, discuss their observations and keep records such as science journal entries.
Outline an appropriate assessment strategy for the resource, i.e. Diagnostic, Formative, Summative and specifics  
 A formative assessment will be required for this resource, as teachers can assess students’ knowledge after the excursion by providing tasks such as; creating a mind-map of the aquatic environments that living and non-living organisms live in.  Teachers can provide feedback to students, so students have an insight of their progress.      
List authentic links with other Learning Areas and Cross-curriculum priorities  
English / Level 3 / Literacy / Creating Texts (VCELY266) Descriptor: Plan, draft and publish imaginative, informative and persuasive texts demonstrating increasing control over text structures and language features and selecting print and multimodal elements appropriate to the audience and purpose. Using appropriate simple, compound and complex sentences to express and combine ideas. (Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority, 2019, VCELY266)   Visual Arts / Level 3 and 4 / Present and Preform (VCAVAP027) Descriptor: Explore different ways of displaying artworks to enhance their meaning for an audience. (Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority, 2019, VCAVAP027)  
Science as a Human Endeavour
Title: Where does Rain come from? – Fuse                                                                                         
Levels: F-2
Sub-strand: Science / Foundation to Level 2 / Science Understanding / Science as a Human Endeavour (VCSSU041)
Descriptor: People use science in their daily lives (Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority, 2019, VCSSU041)
Key Concepts
Monitoring information about the environment and Earth’s resources, for example, rainfall, water levels and temperature. (Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority, 2019, VCSSU041)Identifying the ways humans manage and protect resources, for example, reducing waste and conserving water. (Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority, 2019, VCSSU041)
Alternate Conceptions
Rain falls out of the sky when the clouds evaporate (Science Education Department) Rain comes from holes in clouds. (Science Education Department) Rain comes from clouds sweating. (Science Education Department) Clouds move when we move. We walk and the clouds move with us. (Science Education Department) Empty clouds are refilled by liquid from the sea. (Lecture 11, La Trobe University, TPS)
Source (Reference for this resource)
Victoria State Government. FUSE, 2019. Where does Rain come from? Retrieved from: https://fuse.education.vic.gov.au/Resource/LandingPage?ObjectId=2a3bb9ef-9010-4b33-97c0-90d3b2517948&SearchScope=All   Where does Rain come? Education, 2019. Retrieved from: http://education.abc.net.au/home#!/media/30186/    
Other Key Resources (References)
Laura Henriques. Children’s misconceptions about weather: A review of the literature. Science Education Department. Retrieved from: http://web.csulb.edu/~lhenriqu/NARST2000.htm     This resource allows students to watch a short video on information about where rain comes from. Students will then observe where rain comes from, as it’s part of our daily lives. Students will be able to observe and monitor for 2 weeks what sort of clouds produce rain, they can take digital photographs of the different types of clouds you see. Research to find the names of different types of clouds.
Connections to the Readings, Tutorials etc
In lecture 11, it explains about earth and space sciences, such as our planet earth, weather and our environment. It explains the temperature change and students are aware of changes in temperature around them. It allows students in the regular collection of weather data also presents opportunities for teaching about the importance of organising data in ways that make sense of the information. Students will also understand the changes in temperature by the changes through the day. i.e. when it is midday and sun is peaking the temperature will be higher than the night.  
Relevance and appropriateness of resource
This resource relates to the exploring stage of the 5E model phase. It sparks students interests and provides hands-on experience by observing and recording changes in the sky. This allows students to develop science inquiry skills by processing and analysing data and information, by identifying trends and differences with the clouds.
Outline an appropriate assessment strategy for the resource, i.e. Diagnostic, Formative, Summative and specifics  
 An appropriate assessment strategy for this resource would be a Formative assessment, this allows teachers to assess students on their ability to record and observe the different changes in the clouds and where rain comes form, throughout a two-week period. Teachers will provide students feedback; students can then use this to help them in future experiments. It also allows students to reflect on their science progress and outlines the areas that needs improvement.
List authentic links with other Learning Areas and Cross-curriculum priorities  
Digital Technologies / Foundation to Level 2 / Data and Information Descriptor: Collect, explore and sort data, and use digital systems to present the data creatively. (Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority, 2019, VCDTDI015).   Mathematics / Level 1 / Measurement and Geometry / Using Units of Measurement. Descriptor: Describe duration using months, weeks, days and hours (Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority, 2019, VCMMG097) 
Title: Vegetable Garden – Scootle
Levels: 3-4
Sub-strand: Science / Levels 3 and 4 / Science Understanding / Science as a Human Endeavour
Descriptor: Science knowledge helps people to understand the effects of their actions. (Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority, 2019, VCSSU056)
Key Concepts
Considering how the use of materials including soils and liquids can affect the environment in different ways, for example, fertilisers and food and drink containers. (Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority, 2019, VCSSU056)Investigating how people can use science to select appropriate materials for their work, for example, builders, clothing designers, engineers, gardeners and chefs. (Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority, 2019, VCSSU056)
Alternate Conceptions
Trees, grass, vegetables and weeds are not plants. (Ohio State University, 2009) Plants get their energy from the soil through roots. (Ohio State University, 2009)   Plants need things provided by people (water, nutrients, light). (Ohio State University, 2009) Plants take in all substances they need to grow through their roots. (Ohio State University, 2009)
Source (Reference for this resource)
Vegetable Gardens, 2019. ABC Education. Retrieved from: http://education.abc.net.au/home#!/media/106432/  
Other Key Resources (References)
Jessica Fries-Gaither (2009). Common Misconceptions about Plants. Ohio State University. Retrieved from: https://beyondpenguins.ehe.osu.edu/issue/polar-plants/common-misconceptions-about-plants   This resource gives students an opportunity to learn about vegetable gardens and undertake their own investigation of drawing a diagram of their choice of vegetable growing on its plant, they will need to label the plant parts and writing up which section of the plant we eat. Then they are required to draw the life cycle of a vegetable plant. This allows students to use science to select appropriate materials for their work. I.e. a chef may have his own vegetable garden.
Connections to the Readings, Tutorials etc
Stephanie Huckestein. The Science of Seeds. Virginia Cooperative Extension. Retrieved from: https://ext.vt.edu/content/dam/ext_vt_edu/topics/4h-youth/makers/files/ww1-science-behind-it-seeds.pdf   This reading explains how growing plants is related to science as science is allowing people to understand the effects of their actions. This includes the energy sources to grow the plant successfully and what it needs such as; sun, water and air to grow. It helps students understand more about the soils and the process it takes to plant a vegetable, they will explore the different ways to use the plant in the future.
Relevance and appropriateness of resource
This resource is appropriate in the Explore phase of the 5E model, as growing a vegetable provides students with hands-on experiments and will spark their interest allowing them to have a positive attitude towards learning new concepts.
Outline an appropriate assessment strategy for the resource, i.e. Diagnostic, Formative, Summative and specifics  
 An appropriate assessment strategy for this resource can be Formative assessment, teachers can assess the student’s ability to research and further develop their understanding of their favourite vegetable. Teachers will provide students with feedback to outline the areas they need improvement in and what they did well.
List authentic links with other Learning Areas and Cross-curriculum priorities  
Design and Technologies / Levels 3 and 4 / Creating Designed Solutions / Planning and Managing. Descriptor: Plan a sequence of production steps when making designed solutions. (Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority, 2019, VCDSCD032)
Title: Melting Point and Freezing Point
Levels: 5 and 6
Sub-strand: Science / Levels 5 and 6 / Science Understanding / Science as a human endeavour
Descriptor: Scientific understandings, discoveries and inventions are used to inform personal and community decisions and to solve problems that directly affect people’s lives. (Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority, 2019, VCSSU073)
Key Concepts
Considering how decisions are made to grow particular plants and crops depending on environmental conditions. (Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority, 2019, VCSSU073)Comparing the benefits of using solid, liquids or gaseous fuels to heat a home. (Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority, 2019, VCSSU073)
Alternate Conceptions
Electrons flow at the speed of light. (Sweetland’s, n.d.) Generators make, create electricity. (Sweetland’s, n.d.) There is positive and negative electricity that come from the battery and meet in the light bulb to make light. (Sweetland’s, n.d.)   Air and Oxygen are the same as gas. (Elementary Science Program, 2018) Particles of solids have no motions. (Elementary Science Program, 2018) Melting/freezing and Boiling/condensation are often understood only in terms of water. (Elementary Science Program, 2018)
Source (Reference for this resource)
Heating and Cooling (2019). Though-Provoking Science. Retrieved from: http://www.scootle.edu.au/ec/viewing/S8332/index.html#tpm-nav-four   This activity is designed for students to write up a hypothesis, to observe and to record. Students are required to use a range of substances around the home that can change the state of matter when they are heated or cooled. Students are required to identify equipment’s used, write up their prediction of what they think will happen, record the observation (i.e. how long it takes and compare or visual representation of the changes) and to write up a statement explaining why the substance changed state or it stayed the same.
Other Key Resources (References)
Elementary Science Program (2018). RoseBurg Public Schools. Retrieved from: http://www.roseburg.k12.or.us/depts/educate/science/elementary/misconceptions.html#Properties%20of%20Matter   Dr. Robert Sweetland’s Notes (n.d.) Electricity, Current, Static and Magnetism Misconceptions. Retrieved from: http://www.homeofbob.com/science/misconceptions/electMagnet.html
Connections to the Readings, Tutorials etc
 In relation to Lecture 8, it explains the physical and chemical change of substances. Elaborating on the fact that heating materials can cause both physical and chemical change, and students not recognising that solids expand when heated. There are many different ways a physical change can happen, such as: Dissolution Evaporating Melting Turning to liquid   Students should be taught the science language of the different matters; this helps resolve misconceptions and confusion. This allows students to have a clear mind set to further develop knowledge and skills on the topic.  
Relevance and appropriateness of resource
This resource is part of the Explain phase of the 5E model phase, this allows students to explain and elaborate on their observations and represent their further understanding of the topic.
Outline an appropriate assessment strategy for the resource, i.e. Diagnostic, Formative, Summative and specifics  
 An appropriate assessment strategy for this resource would be formative assessment, this gives the teacher a chance to assess the student’s ability to observe, record and explain their hypothesis. Students have the chance to showcase to their teachers their understanding in relation to the Victorian curriculum and develop scientific inquiry skills of questioning and predicting and processing and analysing data and information.
List authentic links with other Learning Areas and Cross-curriculum priorities  
Critical and Creative Thinking / Level 5 and 6 / Questions and Possibilities (VCCCTQ022) Descriptor: Experiment with alternative ideas and actions by setting preconceptions to one side. (Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority, 2019, VCCCCTQ022)   Design and Technologies / Level 5 and 6 / Creating Designed Solutions / Investigating (VCDSCD038) Descriptor: Critique needs or opportunities for designing, and investigate materials, components, tools, equipment and processed to achieve intended designed solutions. (Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority, 2019, VCDSCD038)
Chemical Sciences
Title: Mind on Maps
Levels: Level 1
Sub-strand: Chemical Sciences / F-2 / Science Understanding / Chemical Sciences (VCSSU044)
Desc: Objects that are made of materials that have observable properties.
Key Concepts
Sorting and grouping materials on the basis of observable properties such as colour, texture and flexibility. (Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority, 2019, VCSSU044)Thinking about how the materials used in buildings and shelters are suited to the local environment. (Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority, 2019, VCSSU044)
Alternate Conceptions
Children see materials as; Fabrics are for clothing Bricks for building Stationary is writing material (Vora, 2013)    
Source (Reference for this resource)
Primary Connections – Lesson 1 ‘Mind on Maps’. What’s it made of? Foundation Year, Chemical Sciences. Australian Academy of Science (2012). Retrieved from: https://lms.latrobe.edu.au/pluginfile.php/4788430/mod_resource/content/0/Foundation%20%28Chemistry%29%20Whats_it_made_of%3F.pdf   This activity requires students to predict and observe what they might see in the school environment and to walk around the school area and identify, describe and discuss the objects in the school environment with their peers. This allows students to group materials by their colour, height or texture and to think about different materials that were used around the school yard.  
Other Key Resources (References)
Lina Vora (2013). Misconceptions on Materials for Primary Children. Prezi. Retrieved from: https://prezi.com/-eey9_nvnvzm/misconceptions-on-materials-for-primary-children/  
Connections to the Readings, Tutorials etc
 In Lecture 7, it introduces the topics of cooperative learning strategies, elaborate phase, chemical sciences – Materials and their Properties. The key components of using collaborative learning groups allows for group processing and small-group skills. The study of materials includes the form, composition and properties of materials, the use of materials and how they relate to properties. Students in the foundation – 2 level will need to be exposed to a variety of classification schemes to appreciate the wide variety of materials that exist.  
Relevance and appropriateness of resource
This resource is part of the Engage phase of the 5E model phase. This resource sparks students’ interest stimulates their curiosity and help further develop their understanding about the topic and develop skills, that can be taken into account in the future lessons.
Outline an appropriate assessment strategy for the resource, i.e. Diagnostic, Formative, Summative and specifics  
 A diagnostic assessment is an important aspect of the Engage phase of the 5E model. With this resource, it allows teacher to assess what students already know and understand about: Sorting and grouping materials on the basis of observable properties (Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority, 2019, VCSSUO44). Thinking about how the materials used in the buildings and shelters are suited to the local environment (Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority, 2019, VCSSU044).
List authentic links with other Learning Areas and Cross-curriculum priorities  
English / Level 1 / Literature / Creating Literature (VCELT192) Descriptor: Recreate texts imaginatively using drawing, writing, performance and digital forms of communication. (Victorian Curriculum Authority and Assessment, 2019, VCELT192)   Mathematics / Level 1 / Measurement and Geometry / Using units of measurement (VCMMG095) Descriptor: Measure and compare the lengths, masses and capacities of pairs of objects using uniform informal units. (Victorian Curriculum Authority and Assessment, 2019, VCMMG095)
Title: Lesson 1 – Sunken Shapes
Levels: 3 and 4
Sub-strand: Science / Levels 3 and 4 / Science Understanding / Chemical Sciences
Descriptor: Natural and processed materials have a range of physical properties; these properties can influence their use. (Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority, 2019, VCSSU060)
Key Concepts
Describing a range of common materials, such as metals or plastics, and their uses. (Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority, 2019, VCSSU060)Investigating a particular property across a range of materials (Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority, 2019, VCSSU060)
Alternate Conceptions
Heat is a substance and not an energy. (Geither, 2009)Cold is transferred from one object to another. (Geither, 2009)Objects that become ward (conductors of heat) do not readily become cold. (Geither, 2009)  
Source (Reference for this resource)
Primary connection, Lesson 1 – Sunken Shapes. Melting Moments (Year 3, chemical science). Australian Academy of Science. Retrieved from: https://lms.latrobe.edu.au/pluginfile.php/4788442/mod_resource/content/0/Year3%20%28Chemistry%29%20Melting_moments.pdf   This activity requires students to observe, record and brainstorm different ideas. To observe objects that have changed shape due to melting and re-freezing. To brainstorm different ideas about what happens when materials are warmed or cooled and how this affects their shape.
Other Key Resources (References)
Jessica Fries- Gaither (2009). Common Misconceptions about Heat and Insulation. The Ohio State University. Retrieved from: https://beyondpenguins.ehe.osu.edu/issue/keeping-warm/common-misconceptions-about-heat-and-insulation  
Connections to the Readings, Tutorials etc
 In lecture 7, it includes Chemical Science – Materials and Properties. The lecture includes students’ ideas about objects, materials and substances, based on five criteria, what they are made of? What can be done? What they are found? Perception of its characteristics? And who it’s made by?   This gives the students the ability to describe a range of common materials and to investigate the property across a range of materials.
Relevance and appropriateness of resource
This sunken shape resource is part of the engaging phase of the 5E model, as it sparks students’ interests, stimulates their curiosity, attracts them to new topics, continues to allow them to develop new skills and further their knowledge.
Outline an appropriate assessment strategy for the resource, i.e. Diagnostic, Formative, Summative and specifics  
 An appropriate assessment strategy for this resource is a Diagnostic assessment, this allows the teacher to analyse what students understand and what needs to be worked on. This gives the students a chance to use their knowledge in explaining how materials change state when heated or cooled and to investigate particular properties. They can assess students on what they already know and understand about: how materials change state when heated or cooled.
List authentic links with other Learning Areas and Cross-curriculum priorities  
Critical and Creative thinking / Levels 3 and 4 / Meta-cognition (VCCCTM020) Descriptors: Investigate a range of problem-solving strategies, including brainstorming, identifying, comparing and selecting options, and developing a testing hypothesis. (Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority, 2019, VCCCTM020)   English / Level 3 / Literacy / Interacting with others (VCELY275) Descriptors: Listen to and contribute to conversations and discussions to share information and ideas and negotiate n collaborative situations and use interaction skills, including active listening and clear, coherent communications. (Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority, 2019, VCELY275).
Title: Lesson 5: Sort it Out
Levels: 5 and 6
Sub-strand: Science / Level 5 and 6 / Science Understanding / Chemical Science (VCSSU076)
Descriptor: Solids, Liquids and gases behave in different ways and have observable properties that help to classify them. (Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority, 2019, VCSSU076)
Key Concepts
Exploring the way solids, liquid and gases change under different situations, for example, heating and cooling. (Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority, 2019, VCSSU076).Recognising that not all substances can be easily classified as solids, liquids, or gases on the basis of their observable properties. (Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority, 2019, VCSSU076).
Alternate Conceptions
Liquids can be compressed (i.e. water in a syringe) (Mitchell, n.d.) Gas means the gases we use as fuels (Mitchell, n.d.) Energy, heat and sound are forms of matter (Mitchell, n.d.) Matter disappears or appears during processes such as; dissolving, burning or evaporating. (Mitchell, n.d.)
Source (Reference for this resource)
Primary Connections – What’s the Matter? (Year 5 chemical science). Lesson 5, Sort it out. Australian Academy of Science, 2012. Retrieved from: https://lms.latrobe.edu.au/pluginfile.php/4788452/mod_resource/content/0/Year5%20%28Chemistry%29%20Whats_the_matter.pdf   This resource ‘Sort it Out’ is an activity that can be conducted in the classrooms to help students learn and understand their misconceptions as well as deepening their knowledge. This activity requires students to watch videos to gain understanding of the differences between solids, liquids and gases and students should research the different sort of materials that relate to solids, liquids and gases in teams.  
Other Key Resources (References)
Ian Mitchell (n.d.) Children’s Alternative Conceptions in Science. Monash University. Retrieved from: http://www.monash.edu/science-education/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/alternconcepts.pdf    
Connections to the Readings, Tutorials etc
In lecture 8, it includes topics about evaluate phase of the 5E model and Chemical sciences (Physical and chemical change). The lecture slides explain the substances and the particulate nature of matter, and the concept of substance is critical to a scientific understanding of physical and chemical change, that should be taught to students to use the scientific language. It includes some students’ alternate conceptions, for example for Evaporation, some students may think the water disappears or transformed, teachers need to be clear about the different between evaporating and boiling,  
Relevance and appropriateness of resource
This resource is part of the Explain phase of the 5E model phase. As students develop a literacy product i.e. discussions, researching and reporting to represent their understanding of chemical sciences. Students will build deepen their understanding of misconceptions by activities such as ‘Sort it Out’ in classrooms.
Outline an appropriate assessment strategy for the resource, i.e. Diagnostic, Formative, Summative and specifics  
 A formative assessment will be conducted for this resource as teachers can monitor students developing understanding and give feedback to help build on their knowledge and understanding. The assessment will be based on student’s ability to explain and associate different materials to solids, liquids and gases. The feedback provided will outline to student’s what needs improvement and what they done well on.
List authentic links with other Learning Areas and Cross-curriculum priorities  
English / Level 5 and 6 / Literacy / Interpreting, analysing and evaluating (VCELY319) Descriptor: Use comprehension strategies to analyse information, integrating and linking ideas from a variety of print and digital resources. (Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority, 2019, VCELY319).
Earth and Space Science
Title: Rain, Rain – Lesson 3
Levels: F-2
Sub-strand: Science / Foundation to Level 2 / Science Understanding / Earth and Space Sciences (VCSSU046)
Descriptor: Observable changes occur in the sky and landscape; daily and seasonal changes affect everyday life. (Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority, 2019, VCSSU046)
Key Concepts
Recording short- and longer-term patterns of events that occur on Earth and in the sky, for example, the appearance of the moon and starts at night, the weather and the seasons. (Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority, 2019, VCSSU046)Investigating how changes in the weather might affect animals such as pets, animals that hibernate, or migratory animals. (Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority, 2019, VCSSU046).
Alternate Conceptions
The Earth is larger than the sun (C. Philips, n.d.) The sun disappears at night (C. Philips, n.d.) Rain falls when clouds become too heavy (C. Philips, n.d.) Air and Oxygen are the same thing (C. Philips, n.d.)
Source (Reference for this resource)
Primary Connections – Water Works (Year 2, Earth and Space Science): Lesson 3 – Rain, Rain. Australian Academy of Science (2012). Retrieved from:  https://lms.latrobe.edu.au/pluginfile.php/4788439/mod_resource/content/0/Year2%20%28Earth%20%20Space%29%20Water_works.pdf   This lesson 3 in primary connections ‘Rain, Rain’ it provides students with hands-on and collaborative learning of what happens when rain falls on different surfaces and student are required to record their observations. This activity will allow students to explore and investigate the earth and space science by analysing rain, in relation to the curriculum. Teachers can incorporate how rain might affect certain animals and their environment or how it can be a benefit for some.  
Other Key Resources (References)
 William C. Philips (n.d.) Earth Science Misconceptions. Retrieved from: https://aamboceanservice.blob.core.windows.net/oceanservice-prod/education/pd/climate/teachingclimate/earth_science_misconceptions.pdf
Connections to the Readings, Tutorials etc
 In lecture 9, it includes scientific literacy and literacies of science, Earth and Space Sciences – Our place in space. The lecture includes ways to ensure hands-on investigation about space and earth sciences, including use of a number of role-playing activities e.g. various planets revolving around the sun and use of globes and torches to represent day and night, or the phases of the moon. These activities will help keep students engaged and interested in learning and further developing their knowledge about the topic.
Relevance and appropriateness of resource
This resource is part of the Explore phase and is designed to provide students with hands-on experiences of investing earth and space science experiments. Students will be conducting, exploring and discussing their observations with their peers and keep records of their observations.
Outline an appropriate assessment strategy for the resource, i.e. Diagnostic, Formative, Summative and specifics  
 This resource requires a Formative assessment. This activity requires monitoring students understanding of the topics and giving feedback can help student progress and improve in their understanding topics. Teacher can assess student’s science inquiry skills, recording and observing skills and working collaboratively with others. Students will be assessed on collaborative working skills and their different observations.
List authentic links with other Learning Areas and Cross-curriculum priorities  
English / Foundation Level / Literacy / Interacting with others (VCELY174) Descriptor: Listen to and respond orally to texts and to the communication of others in informal and structures classroom situations using interaction skills, including listening, while others speak. (Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority, 2019, VCELY174)   Mathematics / Foundation Level / Measurement and Geometry / Using units of Measurement (VCMMG078) Descriptor: Use direct and indirect comparisons to decide which is longer, heavier, or holds more, and explain reasoning in everyday language. (Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority, 2019, VCMMG078)
Title: Studying Soils – Lesson 3
Levels: 3 – 4
Sub-strand: Science / Levels 3 and 4 / Science understanding / Earth and Space Science (VCSSU062)
Descriptor: Earth’s surface changes over time as a result of natural processes and human activity. (Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority, 2019, VCSSU062).
Key Concepts
Considering the effect of events such as floods and extreme weather on landscapes. (Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority, 2019, VCSSU062)Exploring a local area that has changed as a result of natural processes, for example, an eroded gully, sand dunes or riverbanks. (Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority, 2019, VCSSU062)
Alternate Conceptions
It won’t flood during a drought (Flood Victoria, 2018) Hills don’t flood (Flood Victoria, 2018) Floods don’t go higher than the flood level (Flood Victoria, 2018) Levees provide limited protection from floods. (Flood Victoria, 2018) There isn’t water in dry soil. (Flood Victoria, 2018)
Source (Reference for this resource)
Primary Connections – Beneath our feet (year 4 Earth and Space Sciences), Lesson 3 – Studying Soils. Australian Academy of science 2012. Retrieved from:  https://lms.latrobe.edu.au/pluginfile.php/4788449/mod_resource/content/0/Year4%20%28Earth%20%20Space%29%20Beneath_our_feet.pdf   This resource provides students with hands-on, shared experiences of soils and their features. Allows students to research and investigate different soils and different component of soils. Students will be required to record observations in a table and labelled diagram. This will allow students to research and explore local areas that has changed as a result of natural processes.    
Other Key Resources (References)
Common Misconceptions about Flooding (2018). Flood Victoria. Retrieved from: https://www.floodvictoria.vic.gov.au/faq/common-misconceptions-about-flooding      
Connections to the Readings, Tutorials etc
 In lecture 11, it includes Earth and Space Sciences – our planet earth, weather and our environment. The connection to this lecture is that it has information about the natural processes that change the earth’s surface and learning that Australia has its own soil classification system due in part to our highly weathered soils that can be quite different to soils found around the world. To further develop students understanding with soil, they can conduct a report by seeing the relationship between different soils and have students look for similarities and differences in soils found in different locations.
Relevance and appropriateness of resource
This resource will be a part of the Explore phase of the 5E model and it’s designed to provide students with hands-on experiences and allow them to be creative, explore ideas and collect evidence whilst discussing their observations to others.
Outline an appropriate assessment strategy for the resource, i.e. Diagnostic, Formative, Summative and specifics  
 An appropriate assessment for this resource would be to conduct a Formative assessment. This allows teachers to assess student’s development and progress by assessing what they found out about the characteristics of soil. Students can also receive feedback which will help them reflect on their work and journey and where they need to improve on or future activities.
List authentic links with other Learning Areas and Cross-curriculum priorities  
English / Level 3 / Literacy / Creating texts (VCELY266) Descriptor: Plan, draft and publish imaginative, informative and persuasive texts demonstrating increasing control over text structures and language features and selecting print and multimodal elements appropriate to the audience and purpose. (Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority, 2019, VCELY266)
Title: Earth’s structure
Levels: 5 – 6
Sub-strand: Science / Level 5 and 6 / Science Understanding / Earth and Space Science
Descriptor: Sudden geological changes or extreme weather conditions can affect Earth’s surface (Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority, 2019, VCSSU079)
Key Concepts
Investigating major geological events, for example, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and tsunamis (Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority, 2019, VCSSU079)Recognising that earthquakes can cause tsunamis. (Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority, 2019, VCSSU079)  
Alternate Conceptions
Location of earthquakes is random. (Deakin University, n.d.) Continents don’t move. (Deakin University, n.d.) Earth is molten, except for its crust. (Deakin University, n.d.) An earthquake measuring 6.5 on the Richer scale is one time more powerful that an earthquake measuring 5.5. (Deakin University, n.d.)
Source (Reference for this resource)
Earth Structure (n.d.) Deakin University. Retrieved from: https://blogs.deakin.edu.au/sci-enviro-ed/years-5-10/earths-structure/  
Other Key Resources (References)
Deakin University. Science Concepts: Year5-10, Earth’s Structure. Retrieved from:  https://blogs.deakin.edu.au/sci-enviro-ed/wp-content/uploads/sites/40/2014/04/earths-struct.pdf   The activity “Where on Earth do Earthquakes occur? Will help engage students and to develop science inquiry skills and further their knowledge on earthquakes. Students are required to compare 2017 and 2018 earthquakes to try and find a relationship, if necessary.
Connections to the Readings, Tutorials etc
In lecture 12, it explains Earthquakes and what they are and where they occur. They occur when underground rocks break and move due to stresses cause by plate movements. Students tend to hold a negative view on earthquakes as a bad natural event.
Relevance and appropriateness of resource
This resource is most relevant to the Explore phase of the 5E model phase, it allows students to explore, be creative and further understanding with their research of this topic.
Outline an appropriate assessment strategy for the resource, i.e. Diagnostic, Formative, Summative and specifics  
 A formative assessment can be conducted for this resource as a teacher can assess students’ ability to explore and what information and connections they put together of the different years and can provide them with feedback as a reflection of their progress.  
List authentic links with other Learning Areas and Cross-curriculum priorities  
English / Level 5 / Language / Expressing and developing ideas (VCELA311) Descriptor: Explain sequences of images in print texts and compare these to the ways hyperlinked digital texts are organised, explaining their effect on viewers interpretation. (Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority, 2019, VCELA311)
Physical Sciences
Title: Pushing and Pulling
Levels: F-2
Sub-strand: Science / Foundation to Level 2 / Science Understanding / Physical science (VCSSU048)
Descriptor: The way objects move depends on a variety of factors including their size and shape: a push or pull affects how an object moves or changes shape. (Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority, 2019, VCSSU048)
Key Concepts
Observing how the movement of different living things depends on their size and shape. (Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority, 2019, VCSSU048)Exploring how different strengths of pushes and pulls affects the movements of objects.  Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority, 2019, VCSSU048)
Alternate Conceptions
All things fall down, but heavy things fall faster. (Pushes and Pulls, n.d.) If an object is moving, there is a force acting on it in the direction of motion. (Pushes and Pulls, n.d.) An object stops because of the lack of action to keep the object going. (Zenk, n.d.)
Source (Reference for this resource)
Pushing and Pulling (2013). Education Services Australia. Retrieved from: http://www.scootle.edu.au/ec/viewing/L700/index.html   This activity is an online game by the Education Services Australia, it allows students to use animals to either push or pull a cart. This allows students to understand which direction push or pull is and how much force to use. The purpose of this game is a fun and engaging game that allows students to develop science inquiry skills of physical science and by observing the movement of different things.  
Other Key Resources (References)
Teacher’s Guide Kindergarten Unit Forces and Interaction: Pushes and Pull (n.d.) Retrieved from: http://www.mccracken.kyschools.us/Downloads/PUSHES%20and%20PULLS%20-K.pdf   Carly Zenk. Assignment 3: Pre-assessment. Retrieved from: https://msu.edu/~zenkcarl/PDF%20files/Portfolio_PDF/TE804_Assignment3.pdf  
Connections to the Readings, Tutorials etc
 In lecture 4, it includes constructivism, engage phase of the 5E model and physical science (movement and force). It explains that forces are the way we describe the effect of external influences on an object e.g. if a box is sitting on the ground, the force on the box is zero. External forces are known as pushes, pulls, gravity and support.   Forces have two classification, one being; Contact Forces I.e. physical pushes and second: Field Forces i.e. gravity.   In Foundation level, students will be exposed to the basics of pushing and pulling and will further develop their knowledge on forces in levels 3 and 4, 5 and 6.
Relevance and appropriateness of resource
This resource is relevant to the Engage phase of the 5E model phase. It allows students to be engaged, creative and develop their interest on the different topics. Activities are very effective for students, not just a means to have fun. This allows for a positive attitude on the topic and will reflect in student’s science results.
Outline an appropriate assessment strategy for the resource, i.e. Diagnostic, Formative, Summative and specifics  
An assessment that is suitable for this resource can be Formative assessment, students at the end of the topic can generate a table explaining each force and using examples and scenarios to support their explanation. Teachers will then provide feedback to them, that will help with their upcoming levels.
List authentic links with other Learning Areas and Cross-curriculum priorities  
Critical and Creative Thinking / Foundation to Level 2 / Reasoning (VCCCTR006) Descriptor: Consider how reasons and examples are used to support a point of view and illustrate meaning. (Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority, 2019, VCCCTR006)    
Title: Transfer of Heat                                                                                                                          
Levels: 3 and 4
Sub-strand:  Science / Levels 3 and 4 / Science Understanding / Physical Sciences (VCSSU063)
Descriptor: Heat can be produced In many ways and can move from one object to another; a change in the temperature of an object is related to the gain or loss of heat by the object. (Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority, 2019, VCSSU063)
Key Concepts
Describing how heat can be produced, for example, through friction or by burning. (Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority, 2019, VCSSU063) Exploring how heat can be transferred though condition. (Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority, 2019, VCSSU063)
Alternate Conceptions
All liquids boil at 100 degrees and freeze at 0 degrees. (Science in a nutshell, n.d.) Heat is a substance and not an energy. . (Science in a nutshell, n.d.)   Temperature of an object depends on its size. . (Science in a nutshell, n.d.)   Boiling is the maximum temperature a substance can reach. . (Science in a nutshell, n.d.)   Ice cannot change temperature. . (Science in a nutshell, n.d.)  
Source (Reference for this resource)
Though-Provoking Science, 2019 (n.d.) ‘Producing and Transferring Heat’ .Education Services Australia,. Retrieved from: http://www.scootle.edu.au/ec/viewing/S8311/index.html#tpm-nav-two   Science Web Australia, 2019 (n.d.). ‘Transfer of Heat’. Australian Science Teachers Association.  Retrieved from: http://scienceweb.asta.edu.au/years-3-4/unit1/lesson-two/yr34-unit1-lesson-two.html   This heat transfer activity allows students to use their knowledge on what they know about heat and the way it works. Students are put into groups of 3 and are given a coloured ice-cube and a cup of warm water (half-way filled) and they are meant to write up a prediction before they begin and then an observation of what happens to the coloured ice-cube when it melts, students can record the time it takes to fully dissolve. This allows students to develop science inquiry skills by predicting and observing what happens next.       
Other Key Resources (References)
Common Misconceptions about Temperature. Science in a nutshell (n.d.) Retrieved from: https://sites.google.com/site/scienceinanutshell/common-misconceptions-about-temperature  
Connections to the Readings, Tutorials etc
 In relation to Lecture 8, it includes students’ misconceptions on how they believe heat is a substance and not an energy and that ice cannot change temperature. Students are analysing a physical change of dissolution as the solute turns into liquid. Students will learn that heating materials that causes physical and chemical change.  
Relevance and appropriateness of resource
This resource relates to the Explore phase of the 5E model. As students are provided with hands-on activities that sparks their interest and allows them to gain further knowledge and understanding their misconceptions.
Outline an appropriate assessment strategy for the resource, i.e. Diagnostic, Formative, Summative and specifics  
 An appropriate assessment for this resource, is Formative assessment. Students will provide a science journal of their predictions and reports to their teacher, and teacher will provide them with feedback that will help in future assessments and their understanding of the topic.
List authentic links with other Learning Areas and Cross-curriculum priorities  
Mathematics / Level 3 / Statistics and Probability / Data representation and Interpretation (VCMSP149) Descriptor: Collect data, organise into categories and create displays using lists, tables, picture graphs and simple column graphs, with and without the use of digital technologies. (Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority, 2019, VCMSP149)   English / Level 3 / Literacy / Interacting with others (VCELY275) Descriptor: Listen to and contribute to conversations and discussions to share information and ideas and negotiate in collaborative situations and use interaction skills, including active listening and clear, coherent communications. (Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority, 2019, VCELY275)
Title: Exploring Light
Levels: 5 and 6                                                                                                                                      
Sub-strand:  Science / Levels 5 and 6 / Science Understanding / physical Sciences (VCSSU080)
Descriptor: Light from a source forms shadows and can be absorbed, reflected and refracted. (Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority, 2019, VCSSU080)
Key Concepts
Exploring the use of mirrors to demonstrate the reflection of light. (Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority, 2019, VCSSU080).Classifying materials as transparent, opaque or translucent based on the extent to which light passes through them or is absorbed. (Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority, 2019, VCSSU080)  
Alternate Conceptions
Only shiny surfaces or water reflect light. (Shallcross, 2017) Reflective surfaces emit light (Shallcross, 2017) Opaque objects do not reflect light (Shallcross, 2017) Light is only present if observable effects are witnessed. a spot of light on a wall. (Shallcross, 2017)  
Source (Reference for this resource)
Thought-Provoking Science (2019). Exploring Light (Year 5). Education Services Australia. Retrieved from: http://www.scootle.edu.au/ec/viewing/S8333/index.html#tpm-nav-three   Exploring Light uses different tasks and resources to investigate light. In reference to the curriculum, this resource allows us to explore the use of lights through different mirrors. “The reflection of light is when light bounces off an object.” (Science Learning Hub, 2012).   This allows students to learn the different shapes of mirrors and what they are used for. Such as; Specular Reflection: On a rough surface, reflected light rays scatter in all different directions, Lake Reflection is known as a transparent reflection, as the sky reflects through it naturally. Concave Mirrors: Make things appear larger can be useful for satellite dishes Convex Mirrors: Parallel light rays hit a convex mirror reflect outwards. Useful for rear-view mirrors on vehicles as they give a wider field vision.   Students will be required to design a table to represent the findings of the experiments and compare the properties of the three different mirrors.    
Other Key Resources (References)
Ruth Shallcross (2017). Common Conceptions – Seeing the Light. Retrieved from: https://pstt.org.uk/application/files/7715/0634/4750/Seeing_the_Light_Issue_1.pdf  
Connections to the Readings, Tutorials etc
In relation to Lecture 3 it includes Physical sciences both Energy and Electricity. This explains the different types of energy, such as; Energy can transfer from one location to another and can be transformed from one form into one or more forms – called transformation of energy.   Degradation of energy – each transformation, the amount of useful energy becomes less and less.   Energy gets transferred to the bulb, where it’s transformed into light and heat.  
Relevance and appropriateness of resource
Explain phase of the 5E model. As it allows student to analyse and support their ideas with explanations and examples. It provides them with thinking skills activities to; compare and classify the different between different light sources. Overall, it allows students to analyse their explorations.
Outline an appropriate assessment strategy for the resource, i.e. Diagnostic, Formative, Summative and specifics  
 An appropriate assessment for this activity would be a formative assessment. Teacher will assess students’ explanations of comparisons and examples aligning them to the Victorian curriculum and provide feedback on what they did/didn’t do well.
List authentic links with other Learning Areas and Cross-curriculum priorities  
English / Level 5 / Literacy / Interacting with others (VCELLY337) Descriptor: Clarify understanding of content as it unfolds in formal and informal situations, connecting ideas to students’ own experiences, and present and justify a point of view or recount an experience using interaction skills. (Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority, 2019, VCELY337)

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