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396 CHINABibliographySourcesChan Wing-tsit. A Source Book in Chinese Philosophy. Princeton: Princeton UniversityPress, 1969.Koseki, Aaron. “Chi-tsang’s Ta-ch’eng Hsiian-lun: The Two Truths and the BuddhaNature.” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 1977.The Large Sutra on Perfect Wisdom. Translated by Edward Conze. Delhi: MotilalBanarsidass, 1979_Liebenthal, Walter. Chao Lun, The Treatises ofSeng-chao. 2nd rev. ed. Hong Kong: HongKong University Press, 1968.Sprung, Mervyn. Lucid Exposition of the Middle Way: The Essential Chapters from thePrasannapadii. of Candraktrti. Boulder: Praji’ia Press, 1979. .Scripture of the Lotus Blossom of the Fine Dharma. Translated by Leon Hurvltz. NewYork: Columbia University Press, 1976.StudiesChappel, David W., ed. T’ien-t’ai Buddhism: An Outline ofthe Fourfold Teachings. Tokyo:Daiichi Shobo, 1983. Distributed by University of Hawaii Press.Ch’en, Kenneth. Buddhism in China: A Historical Perspective. Princeton, N]: PrincetonUniversity Press, 1964.Conze, Edward. Buddhist Meditation. New York: Harper & Row, 1969.Donner, Neal. “The Great Calming and Contemplation of Chih-i. Chapter One: TheSynopsis.” Ph.D. dissertation, University of British Columbia, 1976.Fung Yu-lang. History ofChinese Philosophy. Translated by Derk Bodde. 2 vols. Princeton,NJ: Princeton University Press, 1973.Gregory, Peter N., ed. Traditions ofMeditation in Chinese Buddhism. Studies in East AsianBuddhism 4. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1986.Griffiths, Paul J. On Being Mindless: Buddhist Meditation and the Mind-Body Problem. LaSalle: Open Court Publishing Company, 1986.Hurvitz, Leon. Chih-i (538-597): An Introduction to the Life and Ideas ofa Chinese BuddhistMonk. Melanges chinois et bouddhiques 12. 1960-62.Kiyota Minoru, ed. Mahayana Buddhist Meditation: Theory and Practice. Honolulu: University Press of Hawaii, 1978.Magnin, Paul. La vie et l’oeuvre, de Huisi (515-577): Les origines de la secte bouddhiquechinoise du Tiantai. Paris: Ecole Fran~aise d’Extreme-Orient, 1979.Murti, T. R. V. The Central Philosophy ofBuddhism. London: Allen & Unwin, 1955.Ramanan, K. Venkata. Nagarjuna’s Philosophy as Presented in the Maha-PrajnaparamitaSiistra. New York: Samuel Weiser, 1966.Robinson, Richard H. Early Madhyamika in India and China. Madison: University ofWisconsin Press, 1967.Streng, Frederick J. Emptiness: A Study in Religious Meaning. New York: Abingdon Press,1967.Swanson, Paul L. Foundations of Tien-t’at Philosophy: The Flowering of the Two TruthsTheory in Chinese Buddhism. Berkeley: Asian Humanities Press, 1989.Tsukamoto Zenryu. A History ofEarly Chinese Buddhism. Translated by Leon Hurvitz.Tokyo, New York, San Francisco: Kodansha International, 1985.Zurcher, Erich. The Buddhist Conquest of China. 2 vols. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1959.14Tantric Buddhism in ChinaPAUL B. WATTT Chinese constituting ANTRIC to its rituals OR Buddhist ESOTERIC the andmainstream. meditative history BUDDHISM than practices 1 Owing has thehad sects than itsadistinctive less commonly to its prominent philosophy, character regarded place more it did in asnot win an intellectual following like that of Tien-t’ai and Hua-yen; nor didit enjoy the sustained acceptance accorded the other “‘schools of practice,”Ch’an and Pure Land. Nevertheless, Tantric Buddhism had greater influencein China than has often been granted. Buddhist texts containing referencesto Tantric practices, as well as monks acquainted with certain Tantric techniques, appeared early in Chinese Buddhist history and contributed muchto the popularity of Buddhism in China. During the T’ang Dynasty (618-906),both foreign and Chinese masters spread this form of Buddhism, and in theeighth and ninth centuries under imperial patronage it became one of theleading sects of Chinese Buddhism. Thereafter, although as a distinct movement it waned, elements of Tantric Buddhist ritual and belief survived untilthe present century, diffused throughout Chinese Buddhism. It should furtherbe noted that, while the Chinese appear to have added little to the IndianTantric Buddhism they received, the Tantric sect of the Tang dynasty playeda pivotal role in the founding of the Japanese esoteric traditions of Shingonand Tendai, which developed along distinctive lines and still flourish today.Since Tantric Buddhism existed only briefly as an identifiable movementin China, materials for its study are relatively limited, if not in quantity,at least in kind. Apart from biographies of monks, the chief sources ofinformation are the extant translations of Tantric texts from Sanskrit intoChinese. Since these translations can be dated, it is possible to trace the spreadof Tantric Buddhism into China. Japanese scholars have established a distinction between “miscellaneous” Tantric texts, on the one hand, and “pure” or“systematic” texts, on the other. In general, texts in the miscellaneous category397398 CHINAwere compiled in India before the seventh century C.E. and incorporateelements of Tantric practice that already had a long history in Hinduism:dharalfls, mantras (incantations), mudras (hand gestures) and the worshipof deities. Though presented as pronouncements of the historical Buddha,these texts have little to do with traditional Buddhist teachings; rather, theyare concerned primarily with the magical attainment of blessings and theavoidance of misfortune. The pure or systematic texts, in contrast, wereformed in the seventh and following centuries and represent a stage at whichTantric practices adopted from Hinduism were thoroughly rationalized inMahayana Buddhist doctrinal terms. The principal texts of this type introduced into China are the Mahavairocana Sutra and the several texts groupedunder the title of the Vajrasekhara Sutra, of which the Tattvasarrtgraha Sutrais the most important.In these later texts, the Buddha Mahavairocana, a personification of thetrue nature of all that exists, is the protagonist. His name may be translated“Great Luminous One.” Various Buddhas and bodhisattvas are introducedas Mahavairocana’s manifestations and guidelines are provided for theirdepiction in sacred diagrams known as mat:t~alas. In Tantric practice, theseBuddhas and bodhisattvas serve, along with certain other objects, as the focusof a complex type of meditation that aims above all at the sudden attainment of Buddhahood. The meditation has a three-part structure, involvingthe use of dharanls and mudras in conjunction with specific objects ofconcentration. Through this technique, known as the practice of the ThreeMysteries (san-mi), the individual is enabled to realize his true, Buddha natureby symbolically identifying with Mahavairocana (or any of his manifestations) in body, speech, and mind.2The first miscellaneous Tantric texts reached China around the third centuryC.E. In 230, the Indian monk known as Chu Lii-yen translated the Mo-tengch’ieh ching(T 21.399-410), a text that contains several dharaI?1s, gives instructions for divination according to the stars, and teaches a rite involving theuse of fire that may reflect the influence of the Hindu homa or fire ritual.In the fourth century, the introduction of miscellaneous Tantric literatureand practices was continued mainly by Central Asian missionaries such asthe monk Dharmaraksa, better known for his translations of the Lotus Sutraand the Perfection of Wisdom in 25,000 Lines; Fo-t’u-teng in North Chinaand Srimitra in the South, famous for their magical powers and for theirknowledge of dharaI?Is, and T’an-wu-Ian, a translator of works containingdhara!fls for curing illness and rites for making and stopping rain.3 The influxof such texts increased in the fifth through seventh centuries. The magicalemphasis remained, but there is evidence of a growing prominence of Buddhistdoctrine in these texts and of an increasing systematization of rituaL Thus,TANTRIC BUDDHISM IN CHINA 399the Ta-chi ching (T 13.1-408), translated by Dharmarak~ema (d. 433), ranksdharalji with morality, meditation, and wisdom as a practice in which a bodhisattva excels. In the second half of the fifth century, T’an-yao, who oversawthe Buddhist artwork done at the Yiin-kang caves, translated large parts ofthe Ta-chi-i shen-chou ching (T 21.568-80), which not only describes thepreparation of an area in which Buddhist images are to be arranged andpresented with offerings (as in certain ma~4alas), but also points out thateach “deity” has its own particular function.By the seventh century, texts were being introduced that reflect the maturetechniques and goals of Tantric Buddhism. Chih-t’ung’s translation of theCh’ien-yen ch’ien-pi-ching (T 20.83-90), is one of the first to state that theultimate aim of Tantric practice is the rapid attainment of Buddhahood. TheTo-/o-ni chi ching (T 18.785-898), translated by Atigupta, discusses theMahayana doctrine of emptiness and indicates in detail how numerousBuddhas and bodhisattvas are to be depicted and employed in Tantric ritualand meditation. By the end of this century, the stage had been set for theiptroduction of so-called pure Tantric Buddhism. The Indian Tantric masterSubhakarasimha (Shan-wu-wei, 637-735) and his Chinese disciple I-hsing(683-727) transmitted the Mahavairocana Sutra. Vajrabodhi (Chin-kang-chih,671-741), and his disciple, Amoghavajra (Pu-k’ung, 705-774) introduced textsof the VajraSekhara line. These men were responsible for bringing TantricBuddhism to its height of popularity in China.Subhakarasimha and I-hsingAccording to one biography, Subhakarasithba was a native of Northeast Indiaand was the son of royalty.4 He was apparently a precocious child; we aretold that he took control of his father’s army when he was ten and ascended~he throne at thirteen. However, a struggle for power broke out betweenSubhakarasithba and his brothers. Although he emerged victorious, he decidedto turn over the government to the eldest of his brothers and enter theBuddhist clergy. As a monk, he traveled widely, studying and displayingvarious magical powers, but he finally settled at the great Buddhist university of Nalanda, where he was instructed by Dharmagupta in the practiceof the Three Mysteries. He took to the road again, visiting pilgrimage sitesand teaching nonbelievers “to look for the Buddha within themselves.”Dharmagupta then ordered him to go to China. On his way, he lecturedon the Mahavairocana Sutra to the Turkish and Tibetan people heencountered.When he arrived in the thriving capital of Ch’ang-an in 716, he was alreadyeighty years old. Emperor Hsiian-tsung (r. 712-756) received the venerable400 CHINAmonk at the palace and bestowed on him the title “Teacher of the Country”(kuo-shih). Subhakarasimha is said to have “caused the emperor to enter theway of the Tathagata,” but it appears that Hsiian-tsung was more impressedby the feats of magic that the monk performed than by his instructions regarding the attainment of Buddhahood. Even before the Tantric master hadarrived, Hsiian-tsung had developed a strong interest in T~oist magic, andhe maintained that interest until his death. In Chang-an, Subhakarasimhaproduced his first translation, the Hsu·kung-tsang ch’iu-wen·ch’ih fa, a text containing a dharaJ:.ll that promised to increase the practitioner’s powers ofmemory (T 20.601-3). In 724, he accompanied the emperor to Loyang, wherehe continued his work. In 725, he made his most important contributionto the spread of Tantric Buddhism, completing the translation of theMahavairocana Siitra (T 18.1-55).5 The Sanskrit text had been sent from Indiathirty years earlier by the Chinese monk Wu-hsing, who had died on theway home. The first fascicle sets forth the philosophy on which the sutrais based; it stresses that knowing one’s mind as it really is constitutes enlightenment, and it offers an analysis of the various levels of spiritual awakening.The next six fascicles present the maJ:.l4a1a (known as the Womb or MatrixmaJ:.l4ala) and the Tantric practices that lead the individual to the realizationof the innate, enlightened mind. The maJ:.l4ala based on this text depictsMahavairocana seated on an eight-petal lotus, surrounded by four majorBuddhas and their attendant bodhisattvas, and then, beyond the perimeterof the lotus, by numerous other bodhisattvas and lesser deities.Subhakarasimha’s disciple, I-hsing, is one of the most remarkable figuresin Chinese Buddhist history. As a young man, he studied the Chinese classics,and he was later known for his knowledge of Taoism. He lost his parentswhen he was twenty-one and began his career in Buddhism as a monk ofthe Clian sect, at one point training under the famous Northern Ch’an master,P’u-chi. By the time his interests had turned to Tantric Buddhism, he notonly had studied monastic discipline and the teachings of the T’ien-t’ai sect,but he had distinguished himself in mathematics and astronomy to such adegree that in 721 Emperor Hsiian-tsung called upon him to reform thecalendar. I-hsing began his study of Tantric Buddhism with Vajrabodhi, whoarrived in Ch’ang-an in 719. Vajrabodhi initiated him into practices associatedwith the Vajrasekhara textual line. By 724, I-hsing joined Subhakarasimhain Loyang. He helped with the translation of the Mahiivairocana Siitra, andthen went on to compile the work that secured his place in Tantric Buddhisthistory: a twenty-fascicle commentary on the sutra, reportedly based onlectures given by Subhakasimha (T 39.579-690).6 No comparable commentary exists for any of the VajraSekhara texts, a fact that does much to explainthe great popularity of the Mahavairocana Siitra in the later Tantric tradition,TANTJUC BUDDHISM IN CHINA 401not only in China, but also in Japan. Shortly after finishing the project, thismultifaceted genius passed away, preceding his master in death by eight years.Vajrabodhi and AmoghavajraLittle can be said with confidence about Vajrabodhi’s birthplace or familybackground. As a boy he entered the Buddhist clergy and studied at Nalanda.In the following years, he read widely in Buddhist literature, acquiring athorough knowledge of both Hinayana and Mahayana doctrine and monasticdiscipline. At the age of thirty-one he received initiation into the VajraSekharaline of Tantric Buddhism in South India. In the course of his travels in India,Vajrabodhi heard of the growing popularity of Buddhism in China and sethis mind on going there to missionize. With the aid of a South Indian king,he set out from Sri Lanka by sea, finally reaching Ch’ang-an in 719 and Loyangin 720. No sooner had he arrived than he began to erect abhi~eka, or initiation, platforms, replete with m~4alas, and to spread Tantric Buddhism. Vajra-~odhi quickly came to the attention of Emperor Hsiian-tsung, and, likeSubhakarasimha, he was called upon to demonstrate his superhuman powers.He is said to have caused rain to fallon one occasion and, on another, tohave saved the life of the emperor’s twenty-fifth daughter, who was diagnosed as having a terminal illness. During the twenty-one years he was activein China, he introduced over twenty sutras and ritual manuals, almost allin the VajraSekhara textual line. The most important of these was his translation of the opening section of the Tattvasar:z.graha Sutra (T 18.223-53). Incontrast to the Mahavairocana Siitra, this work has no philosophical prologue.From the outset, it is concerned with describing the maJ:.l4ala and the meditational practices understood to lead to enlightenment. The maJ:.l4ala, knownas the Diamond, is made up of various subsections or “assemblies”; in its centralassembly are five Buddhas-Mahavairocana, Ak~obhya, Ratnasambhava,Amitabha, and Amoghasiddhi-symbolizing the five types of wisdom characteristic of an enlightened mind.OfVajrabodhi’s several disciples, the most distinguished was Amoghavajra,who appears to have done more to advance the cause of Tantric Buddhismthan any of the masters so far discussed. Amoghavajra was born in 705, mostprobably in Central Asia. His father was a brahmin from North India; hismother came from Samarkand. After his father’s death, he was raised in hismother’s homeland until he was ten years old, when he was taken to Chinaby his maternal uncle. It was in Ch’ang-an, in 719, that he met Vajrabodhiand entered the Buddhist clergy. His first training was in Sanskrit and monasticdiscipline, and only after several years had passed was he initiated into thepractices of the VajraSekhara line of Tantric Buddhism. Amoghavajra served402 CHINAhis master until the latter’s death, but then in 743 he set off for India andSri Lanka to collect T antric material. While in Sri Lanka, he received furtherinstruction in Tantric Buddhism from a certain Samantabhadra. In 746 hereturned to Ch’ang-an, bringing with him over five hundred siitras and commentaries. By the time of his death, in 774, he had translated over one hundredof these texts and established a reputation as one of the greatest translatorsin Chinese Buddhist history. Among his most influential products was histranslation of the opening section of the TattvasaY(lgraha Sutra (T 18.207-23)/a more complete version than Vajrabodhi’s; in later years it was this versionthat served as the principal source for the depiction of the Diamond Ma.r:t~ala.Amoghavajra also worked to spread Tantric Buddhism through the establishment of initiation platforms in temples both within and outside the capital,and all three of the emperors who ruled during his lifetime turned to himfor the rainmaking and healing miracles they had come to expect from theTantric monks. When General An Lu-shan rose in rebellion in 755, Amoghavajra was also called upon to perform rituals for the protection of the state.At the time of the monk’s death, T’ai-tsung canceled all court activities forthree days.Of Amoghavajra’s many outstanding disciples, it was one of the youngest,Hui-kuo (746-805), who had the greatest influence on later Tantric historyin East Asia. Two aspects of his career are particularly important. First, Huikuo appears to have consciously sought to unify the two lineages of TantricBuddhism. He had received initiation into the Vajrasekhara line fromAmoghavajra, and from Hsuan-ch’ao, a disciple of SubhakarasiIhha, hereceived the transmission of the Mahavairocana Sutra and a related text, theSusiddhikara Sutra (T 18.603-33). While earlier Tantric masters may havehad knowledge of both lineages, they tended to specialize in one. Hui-kuoseems to have been the first to hold that they were of equal value. In theimmediately following generations, it was common for monks to receiveinitiation into both. Second, Hui-kuo contributed to the spread of TantricBuddhism outside China. Among his disciples was the Japanese monk Kiikai(774-835), founder of the Shingon sect of Esoteric Buddhism. The founderof the Japanese Tendai sect, Saicho (767-822), also studied Tantric Buddhismduring his stay in China. However, almost nothing is known about histeacher, Shun-hsiao, and the precise character of the transmission he receivedis unclear.s It was not until the monks Ennin (794-864) and Enchin (814-891)visited China and studied with later figures in Hui-kuo’s line that EsotericBuddhism was fully integrated into Japanese Tendai teachings.The Tantric school did not share in the recovery of Buddhism in the Sungperiod (960-1279), although some new translations were made, among themTANTRIC BUDDHISM IN CHINA 403a complete version of the TattvasaY(lgraha by Shih-hu (late tenth century)(T 18.341-445). During the Yuan dynasty (1280-1368), Tibetan TantricBuddhism was introduced, but neither the translations nor the contact withTibet had a reinvigorating effect. Nevertheless, Tantric Buddhism retaineda place in the tradition, as can be seen from the careers of two major Buddhistfigures of the Ming dynasty (1368-1644), Chu-hung (1535-1615) and Hanshan (1546-1623).9 Reflecting the general character of Buddhism in this period,they taught a syncretism of Pure Land, Ch’an, and the doctrinal schools;they emphasized the importance of monastic discipline and they paid particular attention to the needs of lay Buddhists. Furthermore, both Chu-hungand Han-shan were practitioners of Tantric Buddhism. They performed theTantric ritual for rain as well as a rite known as “the feeding of the burningmouths (or hungry ghosts),” a popular ritual for taming malevolent spirits.As the character of these rites suggests, in this period as before, it was themundane benefits of T antric ritual that appear to have held the greatest appeal.Notes1. The term ‘Tantric” is derived from the Sanskrit t4ntra, which refers to the ritualand meditation manuals characteristically associated with this movement in India afterthe eighth century. In Chinese, the appellations Mi, “Esoteric,” or Chen·yen, ‘True Word,”are used to refer to the sect. The former reflects the secret nature of the transmissionof its teachings; the latter is a translation of dharar;t or mantra.2. In terms of the four classes of Tantric literature recognized in India and Tibet, themiscellaneous texts belong to the Kriya class, the Mahavairocana Satra to the Carya class,and the Tattvasarrtgraba Siitra to the Yoga class. Works in the Anuttarayoga category,which are distinguished by their use of sexual symbolism, had almost no influence inEast Asia. See Matsunaga Yukei, “Indian Esoteric Buddhism as Studied in Japan,” in StudiesofEsoteric Buddhism and Tantrism (Koyasan: Koyasan University Press, 1965) 229-42.3. See, e.g., the Chou-cb’in cbing (T 21.491).4. See Chou Yi-liang, ‘Tantrism in China,” HaroardJournal ofAsi4tic Studies 8 (1944-45)241-332, for a translation and study of the Sung biographies of Vajrabodhi and Amoghavajra as well as Subhakarasirhha. On these and other major figures in Chinese Tantrichistory, see Matsunaga Yukei, Mikkyo no sojosba: sono kodo to sbiso.5. In Japan this text is known as the Dainicbikyo.6. For a partial translation of this commentary, see Wilhelm Kuno M~ller, “ShingonMysticism: Subhakarasirhha and I-hsings Commentary to the Mahavalrocana Siltra,Chapter One, An Annotated Translation” (Ph.D. dissertation, University of California;Ann Arbor: University Microfilms, 1976).7. The corresponding Sanskrit text has been translated by Dale Allen Todaro, “AnAnnotated Translation of the Tattvasarpgraha (Part I), with an Explanation of the Roleof the Tattvasarpgraha Lineage in the Teachings of Kukai” (Ph.D. dissertation., ColumbiaUniversity, 1985). Both Amoghavajra’s and Vajrabodhi’s translations of thIS work arereferred to in Japan as the Vajrasekhara SUtra or Kongocbokyo.404 CHINA8. See Paul Sheldon Groner, Saicho: The Establishment of the Japanese Tendai School(Berkeley, CA: Berkeley Buddhist Studies Series 7, 1984) 52-61. ..,9. For studies of these individuals see Chiin.fang Yii, The Renewal ofBuddhism tn China:Chu.hung and the Late Ming Synthesis (New York: Columbia University Press, 1981);and Sung-peng Hsu, A Buddhist Leader in Ming China: The Life and Thought ofHan·shanTe.ch’ing, 1546-1623 (University Park, PA: Pennsylvania University Press, 1979).BibliographyChou Yi-liang, “Tantrism in China.” Harvard Journal ofAsiatic Studies 8 (1944-1945)241-332.Katsumata Shunkyo. “Keika Wajoden no kenkyii.” In Kobo Daishi no shiso to sono genryi1.Tokyo: Sankibo, 1981.Matsunaga Yukei. Mikkyo kyaten kaisetsu. Tokyo: Daito Shuppansha, 1981.__. Mikkyo no sojosha: sono kodo to shiso. Tokyo: Hyoronsha, 1973.__. “Tantric Buddhism and Shingon Buddhism.”Eastern Buddhist 2:2 (November 1969)1-14.Miyasaka Yiisho, Umehara Takeshi, Kanaoka Shiiyii, eds. Mikkya no rekishi. Tokyo:Shunjusha, 1977.Osabe Kazuo.lchigjO Zenji no kenkya. Kobe: Kobe Shoka Daigaku Keizai Kenkyiijo, 1963.Oyama Kojun. Mikkyoshi gaisetsu no kyori. Koyasan: Oyama Kyoju Hoin Shoshin KinenShuppankai, 1961.Taganoo ShOun. Himitsu Bukkyashi. 1933. Reprint, Tokyo: Ryubunkan, 1981.Glossary of Technical Terms[Sanskrit (S), Pali (P), Chinese (C), Japanese 0)]abhidharma S. Lit., study in regard to the Dharma; scholastic treatises thatoutline and classify Buddhist teachings.acarya S. Spiritual master.alaya-vijiiana S. Store-consciousness, or container consciousness, in whichall of life’s experiences are potentially contained in advance and actuallystored after their occurrence, thus providing a basis for continuity andpsychic heredity.amala·vijnana S. Pure consciousness, identical with the true nature ofreality.anapana S. Breathing meditation; breathing as an aid in meditation.anatman S. [anatta P.] No-self, non-ego, the absence of atman.anitya S. [anicca P.] Impermanence; the state of flux, changeability, andtransiency that characterizes all things.arhat S. Noble One; worthy one; one who is free from all defilements.arya S. Noble beings; holy people.asa~sk~ S. Unproduced, or unconditioned, elements.iiSraya·panv-rtti S. The “conversion of the support”; the overturning of theground of our wayward existence.atman S. Ego, a permanent self.bhava S. Existence, entity.bhavana S. Cultivation; to cultivate specific techniques in meditation.bhiksu S. Mendicant, monk.bhii.~i S. Stage on the path to Buddhahood.bodhi S. P. Awakening; enlightenment; the conquest of ignorance throughthe awakening to perfect wisdom.bodhicitta S. The aspiration for enlightenment; the decision to strive forenlightenment; lit., the “mind” of enlightenment.bodhisattva S. [bodhisatta P.] One who undertakes the path to enlightenment; one who strives to attain the wisdom of the Buddha; a futureBuddha; a compassionate being.405

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