Create electronic presentations

FIND A SOLUTION AT Academic Writers Bay

BSBITU312
Create electronic presentations
Learner Guide
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Table of Contents
Table of Contents…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….2
Unit of Competency ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 5
Performance Criteria……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 6
Foundation Skills …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 7
Assessment Requirements……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 8
Housekeeping Items …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 9
Objectives …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 9
1. Prepare to create presentation……………………………………………………………………………………..10
1.1 – Organise personal work environment (including furniture and equipment) in accordance
with ergonomic requirements …………………………………………………………………………………………….11
Examples of workplace policy requirements ……………………………………………………………………..13
Clean work area …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….13
Activity 1A …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….14
Using a mouse……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….18
Keyboard equipment and radiation………………………………………………………………………………….18
Keyboard and telephone operations ………………………………………………………………………………..18
Posture during typing……………………………………………………………………………………………………..18
Typing technique……………………………………………………………………………………………………………18
1.2 – Identify purpose, audience and mode of presentation in consultation with content author or
presenter………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….21
What is a content author? ………………………………………………………………………………………………21
Determine purpose, audience and mode of presentation …………………………………………………..21
Determine the purpose…………………………………………………………………………………………………..21
Check list ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………22
Audience Characteristics…………………………………………………………………………………………………23
Presentation format and delivery methods may include: ……………………………………………………25
Mode……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………26
Style……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..26
Special Considerations ……………………………………………………………………………………………………26
1.3 – Identify organisational and task requirements relating to supporting documents and
equipment………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..27
Enhancing the audience understanding of key concepts and central ideas……………………………28
Resources – choosing your method………………………………………………………………………………….28
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Use of audio visual presentation aids ……………………………………………………………………………….28
Presentation aids quick evaluation …………………………………………………………………………………..30
Resources and methods quick evaluation …………………………………………………………………………30
1.4 – Select most appropriate application or platform to produce presentation, in accordance with
available resources and organisational policies……………………………………………………………………..31
Activity 1B …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….32
2. Create presentation ……………………………………………………………………………………………………33
2.1 – Plan and prepare slides, notes and handouts according to organisational and task
requirements and image and style requirements ………………………………………………………………….34
Design slides, notes and hand-out masters ……………………………………………………………………….35
Design the master slide…………………………………………………………………………………………………..36
What about corporate template images?………………………………………………………………………….36
Notes and hand-outs………………………………………………………………………………………………………37
Create notes pages…………………………………………………………………………………………………………37
Previewing your hand-out……………………………………………………………………………………………….39
Hand-out master……………………………………………………………………………………………………………40
Avoiding distractions………………………………………………………………………………………………………40
Using storyboards may help you plan your presentation…………………………………………………….40
Types of Storyboard ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….41
2.2 – Use application functions for consistency of design and layout, to meet identified
presentation requirements…………………………………………………………………………………………………42
2.3 – Balance presentation features for visual impact and emphasis ……………………………………….43
Visual impact and emphasis…………………………………………………………………………………………….43
Speelling Spelling!!…………………………………………………………………………………………………………43
Don’t hide behind your visual impact and emphasis…………………………………………………………..44
2.4 – Use advanced application features to streamline and customise presentation for different
audiences …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………45
What are Advanced Features?…………………………………………………………………………………………45
Presentation for different audiences………………………………………………………………………………..45
Create a custom slide show …………………………………………………………………………………………….45
On-the-spot customisation ……………………………………………………………………………………………..45
Using advanced software may require advanced skills?………………………………………………………46
2.5 – Prepare presentation within designated timeline ………………………………………………………….48
2.6 – Use relevant help functions to overcome issues relating to presentation creation, if necessary
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 48
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Internet ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..49
Online help……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………49
Manuals………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..49
Readme files………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….49
Corporate help desks ……………………………………………………………………………………………………..49
Training ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..49
Help that comes with a program ……………………………………………………………………………………..50
Using Help …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….51
Activity 2A …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….54
3. Finalise presentation…………………………………………………………………………………………………..55
3.1 – Check presentation for spelling and consistency in presentation features and style, in
accordance with task requirements …………………………………………………………………………………….56
3.2 – Prepare presentation materials for delivery in accordance with presenter or audience
requirements ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………56
Establish what you want to do…………………………………………………………………………………………56
PowerPoint 2013……………………………………………………………………………………………………………56
Check spelling………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..57
Consistency in presentation features ……………………………………………………………………………….57
Activity 2B …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….59
Activity 3A …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….60
3.3 – Name and store presentation appropriately, in accordance with organisational requirements
and exit application without information loss ……………………………………………………………………….61
Storage integrity…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….61
Costs of storage……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..62
Saving your presentation is quite easy ……………………………………………………………………………..62
What are your organisations requirements?……………………………………………………………………..62
Storage: Thumb Drives, CD-ROM, external hard drives, Cloud storage andother devices ……….63
Exit the application without information loss or damage…………………………………………………….63
Loss or damage ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..64
Possible solutions – no guarantees! …………………………………………………………………………………64
Activity 3B …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….65
Activity 4: Skills and Knowledge Activity……………………………………………………………………………66
Activity 5: Major Activity…………………………………………………………………………………………………67
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Unit of Competency
Application
This unit describes the skills and knowledge required to design and produce electronic presentations
for speakers, for self access and online access.
It applies to individuals employed in a range of work environments who design electronic
presentations. They may work as individuals providing administrative support within an enterprise,
or may be responsible for production of their own electronic presentations.
No licensing, legislative or certification requirements apply to this unit at the time of publication.
Unit Sector
Information and Communications Technology – IT Use
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Performance Criteria
Element
Elements describe the
essential outcomes.
Performance Criteria
Performance criteria describe the performance needed to
demonstrate achievement of the element.
1. Prepare to create
presentation
1.1 Organise personal work environment (including furniture
and equipment) in accordance with ergonomic
requirements
1.2 Identify purpose, audience and mode of presentation in
consultation with content author or presenter
1.3 Identify organisational and task requirements relating to
supporting documents and equipment
1.4 Select most appropriate application or platform to produce
presentation, in accordance with available resources and
organisational policies
2. Create presentation 2.1 Plan and prepare slides, notes and handouts according to
organisational and task requirements and image and style
requirements
2.2 Use application functions for consistency of design
and layout, to meet identified presentation
requirements
2.3 Balance presentation features for visual impact and
emphasis
2.4 Use advanced application features to streamline and
customise presentation for different audiences
2.5 Prepare presentation within designated timeline
2.6 Use relevant help functions to overcome issues relating to
presentation creation, if necessary
3. Finalise presentation 3.1 Check presentation for spelling and consistency in
presentation features and style, in accordance with task
requirements
3.2 Prepare presentation materials for delivery in accordance
with presenter or audience requirements
3.3 Name and store presentation appropriately, in accordance
with organisational requirements and exit application
without information loss
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Foundation Skills
This section describes language, literacy, numeracy and employment skills incorporated in the
performance criteria that are required for competent performance.
Skill
Performance
Description
Criteria
Reading 1.3, 3.1, 3.2, 3.4 ➢ Evaluates and integrates information and ideas to
construct meaning in an effort to design and create a
presentation
Writing 2.1, 2.3-2.5 ➢ Communicates relationships between ideas and
information in a style appropriate to audience and purpose
in accordance with organisational and task requirements
Oral
Communication
1.2 ➢ Listens to discussions and participates in exchange of
information to choose appropriate actions to create
presentation
Navigate the
world of work
1.1-1.4, 2.1, 2.2, 2.5,
3.2-3.4
➢ Recognises and follows explicit and implicit protocols and
meets expectations associated with own role
Interact with
others
1.2 ➢ Collaborates with others to achieve joint outcomes
Get the work
done
1.4, 2.1-2.5, 3.1-3.4 ➢ Uses advanced features within applications to address
routine and complex work tasks
➢ Plans and implements routine tasks and workload making
limited decisions on sequencing and timing
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Assessment Requirements
Performance Evidence
Evidence of the ability to:
➢ Adhere to organisational requirements and strategies when creating electronic presentations
including:
o ergonomic requirements
o energy and resource requirements
➢ Adhere closely to task requirements:
o following designated timelines
o achieving consistency of design and layout
o ensuring correct editing and style requirements
➢ Use advanced software features
➢ Communicate effectively with personnel
➢ Print and store presentation
Note: If a specific volume or frequency is not stated, then evidence must be provided at least once.
Knowledge Evidence
To complete the unit requirements safely and effectively, the individual must:
➢ Outline key provisions of relevant legislation, standards and codes that affect aspects of business
operations
➢ Explain how design features affect the readability and appearance of electronic presentations
Assessment Conditions
Assessment must be conducted in a safe environment where evidence gathered demonstrates
consistent performance of typical activities experienced in the information and communications
technology – IT use field of work and include access to:
➢ Office equipment and materials
➢ Relevant software applications
➢ Examples of electronic presentations
➢ Style guides
Assessors must satisfy NVR/AQTF assessor requirements.
Links
Companion volumes available from the IBSA website: http://www.ibsa.org.au/companion_volumes
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Housekeeping Items
Where relevant, your trainer will inform you of the following;
➢ Where the toilets and fire exits are located, what the emergency procedures are and
where the breakout and refreshment areas are.
➢ Any rules, for example asking that all mobile phones are set to silent and of any security
issues they need to be aware of.
➢ What times the breaks will be held and what the smoking policy is.
➢ That this is an interactive course and you should ask questions.
➢ That to get the most out of this workshop, we must all work together, listen to each
other, explore new ideas, and make mistakes. After all, that’s how we learn.
➢ Ground rules for participation;
o Smile
o Support and encourage other participants
o When someone is contributing everyone else is quiet
o Be patient with others who may not be grasping the ideas
o Be on time
o Focus discussion on the topic
o Speak to the trainer if you have any concerns
Objectives
➢ Discover how to prepare to create presentation
➢ Learn how to create a presentation
➢ Know how to finalise a presentation
➢ Gain skills and knowledge required for this unit
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1. Prepare to create presentation
1.1 Organise personal work environment (including furniture and equipment) in accordance
with ergonomic requirements
1.2 Identify purpose, audience and mode of presentation in consultation with content author or
presenter
1.3 Identify organisational and task requirements relating to supporting documents and
equipment
1.4 Select most appropriate application or platform to produce presentation, in accordance with
available resources and organisational policies
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1.1 – Organise personal work environment (including furniture and
equipment) in accordance with ergonomic requirements
Ergonomic requirements may include:
➢ Avoiding radiation from computer screens
➢ Chair height, seat and back adjustment
➢ Document holder
➢ Footrest
➢ Keyboard and mouse position
➢ Lighting
➢ Noise minimisation
➢ Posture
➢ Screen position
➢ Workstation height and layout.
Any assessment of ergonomic conditions that exists in the workplace would normally be handled
through the Human Resource (HR) department under a Risk Assessment as part of Workplace Health
and Safety (WHS) or by a system that evaluates risk potential to employees.
Some of the areas suggested in the Range Statement would be more suitably handled by employees
as part of a daily or periodic self-check of equipment, the workstation and work area before work
commences and during work.
For areas that may be covered under WPH&S and awards or Human Resource policies, responsibility
of the employer to provide a safe workspace would be documented and form part of regular risk
management checks.
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➢ Supervisors, managers, team leaders etc. are generally designated WHS officers so
that there is a standard and policy driven culture present to the checks.
➢ Responsibilities include hazard reporting procedures, job procedures and safe work
instructions, emergency procedures, accident and near miss reporting and
recording procedures, consultation on WHS issues, correct selection, use & storage
and maintenance procedures for use of personal protective equipment, control of
risks under direct supervision.
➢ Awareness of relevant legislation from all levels of government (State or Federal)
which affect business operation, especially in regard to WHS and environmental
issues, equal opportunity, industrial relations, anti-discrimination and diversity.
➢ Compliance to behaviour that contributes to a safe working environment,
identifying and reporting risks or hazards, using business equipment according to
guidelines, listening to the ideas and opinions of others in the team, sharing
opinions, views, knowledge and skills.
➢ Formal and informal health and safety meetings, meetings called by health and
safety representatives, suggestions, requests, reports and concerns put forward to
management.
➢ Workstation height and layout, chair height, seat and back adjustment, footrest,
screen position, keyboard and mouse position, document holder, posture, avoiding
radiation from computer screens, noise minimisation.
➢ Mix of repetitive and other activities, rest periods, exercise breaks, VDU eye testing.
➢ A range of environmental conditions including: noise, light, gas, smoke, odour,
vapour, liquids/solids, particles and fumes.
If a particular office layout design is needed this would be a matter of personal and working
circumstances.
For example:
➢ Does the workspace provide acoustical privacy (for example, can people talk in
privacy, according to the level of confidentiality required; do noises and
conversations interfere with their concentration; do noises or conversations make it
difficult to hear or understand speech if much of their work involves using the
telephone?)
➢ Are the walls permanent (i.e., fixed) or is the workspace in
an open office environment?
➢ Does the workspace provide visual privacy?
➢ Can an employee personalise his or her individual work
space?
➢ Is there access to natural light or only artificial lighting?
➢ Is the workplace layout designed to facilitate
interpersonal contact?
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Examples of workplace policy requirements
➢ Maintain work areas in a safe, uncluttered and
organised manner according to policy and
procedures.
➢ Carry out all procedures safely, effectively and
efficiently with minimum inconvenience to staff
according to policy.
➢ Apply policy and procedures for tidying work areas
and placing items in designated areas.
Clean work area
➢ Apply policy and procedures for personal hygiene.
➢ Apply policy and procedures for cleaning of work area.
➢ Sort, recycle, remove and dispose of waste promptly according to policy
requirements.
➢ Safely remove and clean spills of food, waste or other potential hazards in
compliance with WHS requirements and policy.
➢ Maintain equipment and consumable materials and store correctly after use.
➢ Use and clean equipment according to manufacturer instructions and policy
requirements.
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Activity 1A
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Consideration should be given to:
➢ The accessories required to operate properly
➢ The layout of equipment on the desk
➢ The location of furniture in the room
Work surface height
➢ Adjust the height of the work surface and/or the height of the chair so that the
work surface allows your elbows to be bent at 90 degrees, forearms parallel with
the floor, wrist straight, shoulders relaxed.
Chair
➢ Adjust the seat tilt so that you are comfortable when you are working on the
keyboard. Usually, this will be close to horizontal but some people prefer the seat
tilted slightly forwards. Your knees should be bent at a comfortable angle and
greater than 90 degrees flexion. If this places an uncomfortable strain on the leg
muscles or if the feet do not reach the floor then a footrest should be used. The
footrest height must allow your knees to be bent at 90 degrees. Therefore the
height of the footrest may need to be adjustable. Adjust the backrest so that it
supports the lower back when you are sitting upright.
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Keyboard placement
➢ Place the keyboard in a position that allows the
forearms to be close to the horizontal and the wrists
to be straight. That is, with the hand in line with the
forearm. If this causes the elbows to be held far out
from the side of the body then re-check the work
surface height. Some people prefer to have their
wrists supported on a wrist desk or the desk. Be
careful not to have the wrist extended or bent in an up position.
Screen placement
➢ Set the eye to screen distance at the distance that permits you to most easily focus
on the screen. Usually this will be within an arm’s length. Set the height of the
monitor so that the top of the screen is below eye level and the bottom of the
screen can be read without a marked inclination of the head. Usually this means
that the centre of the screen will need to be near shoulder height. Eyes level with
the tool bar. People who wear bifocal or multi focal lenses will need to get a
balance between where they see out of their lenses and avoid too much neck
flexion.
Desk-top layout
➢ Place all controls and task materials within a comfortable reach of both hands so
that there is no unnecessary twisting of any part of the body. Most people prefer
the document holder to be between the keyboard and the monitor. There are many
different types of document holders available.
Document holder
➢ Place this close to the monitor screen in the position that causes the least twisting
or inclination of the head.
Posture and environment
➢ Change posture at frequent intervals to minimise fatigue. Avoid awkward postures
at the extremes of the joint range, especially the wrists. Take frequent short rest
breaks rather than infrequent longer ones. Avoid sharp increases in work rate.
Changes should be gradual enough to ensure that the workload does not result in
excessive fatigue. After prolonged absences from work the overall duration of
periods of keyboard work should be increased gradually if conditions permit.
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Lighting
➢ Place the monitor to the side of the light source/s, not directly underneath. Try to
site desks between rows of lights. If the lighting is fluorescent strip lighting, the
sides of the desks should be parallel with the
lights. Try not to put the screen near a window. If
it is unavoidable ensure that neither the screen
nor the operator faces the window.
➢ If the monitor is well away from windows, there
are no other sources of bright light and prolonged
desk-work is the norm, use a low level of service
light of 300 lux. If there are strongly contrasting
light levels, then a moderate level of lighting of
400 – 500 lux may be desirable.
Glare and reflection
➢ It is important to detect the presence of glare and reflection. To determine whether
there is glare from overhead lights whilst seated worker should hold an object such
as a book above the eyes at eyebrow level and establish whether the screen image
becomes clearer in the absence of overhead glare. To detect whether there are
reflections from the desk surface, the worker should hold the book above the
surface and assess the change in reflected glare from the screen.
A number of ways are available to eliminate or reduce the influence of these reflections:
➢ Tilt the screen (top part forwards) so that the reflections are directed below eye
level.
➢ Purchase an LCD screen.
➢ Cover the screen with a light diffusing surface or anti-glare screen.
➢ Negative contrast screen (dark characters on light background) will reduce the
influence of these reflections.
If you experience eye discomfort when using a bright screen you should make the following
adjustments:
➢ Turn the screen brightness down to a comfortable level.
➢ Look away into the distance in order to rest the eyes for a short while every ten
minutes or so.
➢ Change the text and background colours. Recommended are black characters on
white or yellow background, or yellow on black, white on black, white on blue and
green on white. Avoid red and green and yellow on white.
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Using a mouse
➢ A well designed mouse should not cause undue pressure on the wrist and forearm
muscles. A large bulky mouse may keep the wrist
continuously bent at an uncomfortable angle. Pressure
can be reduced by releasing the mouse at frequent
intervals, by selecting a slim-line, low-profile mouse.
Keep the mouse as close as possible to the keyboard,
elbow bent and close to the body.
Keyboard equipment and radiation
➢ Computer screens emit visible light which allows the
characters on the screen to be seen. Weak
electromagnetic fields and very low levels of other radiation, not visible to the
human eye, can be detected by sensitive instruments. Similar emissions are
produced by television receivers.
➢ The levels of most radiations and electromagnetic fields emitted from computers
are much less than those from natural sources, such as the sun or even the human
body and are well below levels considered to be harmful by responsible expert
bodies such as the International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA).
Keyboard and telephone operations
➢ Avoid cradling the phone between your head and shoulder when answering calls. If
needing to access the computer at the same time a headset is recommended.
Hands free/speaker phone is another option if the environment is suitable.
Posture during typing
➢ Good posture is essential for all users of computers. It comprises of a natural and
relaxed position, providing opportunity for movement, and from which the
operator can assume a number of alternative positions. It is not a single, rigidly
defined position.
Typing technique
Typing is a physical activity, and using a keyboard requires skill, hence the need to learn correct
typing technique. Unskilled (‘hunt and peck’) typists are particularly at risk of Occupational Overuse
Injury because they:
➢ Often use only one or two fingers which may overload the finger tendons;
➢ Are constantly looking from keyboard to screen to keyboard, which may strain neck
muscles;
➢ Often adopt a tense posture (wrists bent back and fingers ‘poised to strike’).
➢ The University acknowledges the importance of learning correct typing technique.
Departments should ensure that untrained staff receive appropriate training.
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Speed of typing
➢ The efficiency and speed of modern
computers make it possible for a skilled
operator to type extremely quickly. This
capability, reinforced by workload pressures
means the potential exists for operators to
key at speeds which may cause or contribute
to Occupational Overuse Syndrome.
➢ The role of the repetitive movement in injury
is not fully understood, but is believed to
interfere with the lubrication capacity of
tendons, and the ability of muscles to receive
sufficient oxygen supplies.
10,000 – 12,000 keystrokes per hour is considered an acceptable standard.
Length of time on the keyboard
➢ The maintenance of a fixed posture for long periods is tiring and increases the
likelihood of muscular aches and pains. In addition, long periods of repetitive
movement and sustained visual attention can also give rise to fatigue-related
complaints.
➢ It is recommended that operators avoid spending more than five hours a day on
keyboard duties and no longer than 50 minutes per hour without a
postural/stretching break.
➢ Employees newly engaged in keyboard work, and staff returning from an absence of
two or more weeks, need a period of adjustment. The adjustment may be achieved
through reduced work rates, or provision of alternate duties with gradual reintroduction to keyboard work.
Jobs should be designed and organised so that either:
➢ Computer related tasks can be interspersed with non-computer related
➢ Computer based tasks can be rotated amongst several staff (task/job sharing).
➢ It is not the change of task per se, but the change to using different movements and
postures that is important. The whole purpose of task variety is to give the
overloaded structures a necessary break.
Supervisors should ensure that workload controls are exercised using the following strategies:
➢ Planning ahead to avoid peaks, and rushed jobs
➢ Delegating fairly to all staff not just the best workers
➢ Considering the total workload of the individual (often comes from a number of
sources)
➢ Clearly defining each operator’s workload
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➢ Implementing systems of prioritisation e.g. Work request forms, waiting lists
➢ Using relief staff
➢ Applying strict tests to the use of ‘urgent’ labels
➢ Discouraging ‘endless’ drafts
➢ Discouraging the use of typed internal minutes and memoranda
➢ Encouraging authors to have realistic expectations
➢ Teaching authors keyboard skills
➢ Teaching operators how to be assertive, and how to prioritise
➢ Supporting operators when authors impose unrealistic expectations
➢ Refusing illegible drafts.
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1.2 – Identify purpose, audience and mode of presentation in consultation
with content author or presenter
Mode of presentation may include:
➢ Available for browsing by individuals
➢ Display on one computer, control from another
➢ Online, internet, intranet
➢ Conference presentation
➢ Self-running presentation
➢ Speaker
A sound method in helping you determine the purpose and the intended audience of your
presentation is to complete a check list of your design or in association with a content author or the
presenter.
What is a content author?
A content author can be anyone, anywhere who contributes to content of a subject.
➢ There are few, if any, prerequisites for such a position and generically, such an
individual would be a knowledge worker, and more specifically this is a role and not
a title.
➢ As a content author, you would add content to pages in your website or other
knowledge based applications and programs.
➢ A content author would have skills in assisting with structures such as designing a
purpose, audience profile and mode of presentation in the instance of creating an
electronic presentation.
Determine purpose, audience and mode of presentation
Establish if you don’t know already:
➢ Project name and title
➢ Start date
➢ Presentation date
Determine the purpose
➢ Have a clear statement of your goals and objectives
➢ Take your audience into consideration well before you commence designing the
presentation
➢ Know, if you can, the size of your audience and the length of your presentation,
type and location
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Check list
Purpose
What is the purpose of the
presentation?
Indicate
Comments
Inform
Persuade
Inspire
Motivate
Share
Other (describe)
Purpose
What is the single most
important thing you want to
communicate?
What is the next most
important thing?
What other information do
you want to include?
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Who is your audience?
Audience
Audience Characteristics
Characteristics of a target audience can include: age, cultural and language differences, gender,
physical ability and previous experience linked to your presentation or topic.
Having prior knowledge of your target audience provides focus and insight for you to ensure your
presentation is relevant.
Ask yourself:
➢ Who are they?
➢ What do they know and expect?
➢ What do they feel about this presentation or subject?
➢ How do you think they will be impacted or affected by your topic?
➢ What is the most appropriate way to approach them with your ideas and concepts?
➢ What is their organisational status: seniors, middle management or juniors?
How familiar is your audience likely to be with your presentation topic and goals?
Tick
Comments
Very Familiar
Unfamiliar
Likely to be
supportive
Likely to be opposed
Why? (Describe)
Audience type
Characteristics
A
Experienced
➢ Avoid boring the experts
➢ Identify unfamiliar terms and jargon
➢ Be sure to give the experts examples to keep them
interested
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B
Culturally diverse
➢ Formal or informal
➢ Do I use audience participation or questions
➢ Differences in motivation – some cultures value wealth
and achievement; others may value work relationships
and status in business
C
Aged
➢ Use simple vocabulary
➢ Does your topic excite or bore them?
➢ Are they biased before they begin?
➢ What are their values, attitudes and beliefs?
D
Disabled
➢ Analyse how you would feel about being in the audience
➢ Be mindful of Audio or Visual restrictions
➢ Consider audience participation restrictions
➢ What are their values, attitudes and beliefs
E, F, G
etc.
List as needed
List as needed
My presentation – strategies for choosing format and delivery methods
TYPE
Detail: My preferred method of presentation
B
Detail: What to look for in
this type of audience profile
Mode and Style (in consultation with content author or presenter)
Communication classifications relevant to the task
➢ Verbal is the use of words
➢ Non-verbal is body language, clothing, gestures, facial expressions, eye contact
➢ Graphic is represented by shapes, diagrams, lines, charts.
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The single most important observation is that the objective of communication is not the
transmission but the reception.
➢ Identify the main ideas – stay focused on the main purpose of your presentation as
you gather material and ideas. In doing so, you will be contributing a set of welldeveloped communication skills whilst presenting a range of concepts and ideas. In
turn, these ideas would then be used to provoke a response, reaction or critical
discussion.
Presentation format and delivery methods may include:
➢ Advertising copy – generally accepted to be: text of a print,
radio, or television advertising message that aims at catching
and holding the interest of the prospective buyer. It would
likely be included as part of a PowerPoint presentation or
used as part of a case study.
➢ Audio – can be an adjunct to a presentation or, in some
instances, used exclusively such as a presentation to Music or
Media audiences.
➢ Direct marketing copy – as the name implies is
communication that goes out directly to an individual without the use of other
media and usually has more creative text that would include testimonials and action
words.
➢ Individual presentation – can be to an audience but pitched to the individuals in
that group, or to a wider format such as a TV or Radio presentation. The
presentation itself can take on many forms.
➢ Public relations copy – technically, it’s about directing a message to specific people
in an organisation or Government, with a view to gain a form of publicity.
➢ Scripts – in the context of a format and delivery method, a script will contain text
which is created for TV, Radio or other promotional or advertising media and
usually follows a plan or direction.
➢ Storyboards – are graphic illustrations of images displayed in a sequence for the
purpose of visualising what an advertisement, animation, motion graphic or
interactive media sequence would appear like before production.
➢ Team presentation – would include more than one person in the presentation to an
audience. It could also include debates using multiple participants. Workshops and
exercises that are often used in a presentation would include teams.
➢ Verbal presentation – verbal presentation is the use of words only. A speech is a
verbal presentation in the simplest example.
➢ Video – is often used in a presentation to supplement or emphasise a verbal or
other type of format. Video is used generally to gain a high impact to the
presentation. An out of date video is the worst thing to use.
➢ Visuals – can be anything you see. They would likely be included in slides, printed
material, signs or other graphics used to supplement your presentation.
P a g e | 26
Mode
Tick
Comments
PowerPoint
Other
Sound
Special effects
Style
Tick
Comments
Conference presentation
Formal presentation
Informal
Location
Introduction by whom?
Special Considerations
Tick
Comments
Will your presentation be
available for browsing by
individuals on the website?
Will you display your
presentation via a projector
using one computer and
controlling it remotely or
via a separate laptop?
Will the presentation be
live online, through the
internet or intranet or
other?
Will the presentation be
recorded by Video?
P a g e | 27
1.3 – Identify organisational and task requirements relating to supporting
documents and equipment
Presentation Requirements
May Include:
➢ Presentation requirements
➢ 35 mm slides
➢ Annotation pen
➢ Computer equipment and peripherals for
on-screen presentation
➢ Data show
➢ Digital pointer
➢ Handouts
➢ Internet access
➢ Laptop computer
➢ Network access
➢ Outlines
➢ Overhead projector
➢ Overhead transparencies
➢ Paper printouts of presentation or slide
show
➢ Slide projector
➢ Speaker notes
➢ Video projector/s
➢ World wide web documents
In addition to these equipment based enhancement techniques, you may also need to consider
some of the following that suit the format and purpose of the presentation:
➢ Evaluate presentation effectiveness though critical evaluation using friends or
colleagues
➢ The use and level of research. Be aware of how you use the research
➢ One-on-one interviews to use for video or PowerPoint presentations
➢ Written feedback or testimonials.
And finally, consider these additional presentation aids that may be employed as part of your
strategy:
➢ Case studies
➢ Demonstration/discussion
➢ Group and/or pair work
➢ Questioning
➢ Simulations and role-play.
P a g e | 28
Enhancing the audience understanding of key concepts and central ideas
Visual material improves any presentation. It is wise to place this consideration at the top of the list,
unless you are designing a specific presentation that may be considered “different” to the norm.
➢ People receive messages in different ways. As we
have discussed, receiving and understanding
your message is more important than just
delivering it.
➢ A variety of communications methods will help
get your message across.
➢ This includes reading, seeing, hearing or a
mixture of voice and gestures.
Don’t forget to consider all these presentation aids, materials and techniques as part of your budget.
Check first before diving in headlong to a commitment that you cannot support either financially or
through bad timing.
Resources – choosing your method
➢ Presentation aids
➢ Materials/technique that suit the purpose
➢ Enhance the understanding
➢ Select appropriate points of emphasis in your presentation
➢ Develop a useful level of detail
➢ Choose and prepare appropriate visual aids
➢ Create a tone that is sensitive to your audience’s circumstance.
Use of audio visual presentation aids
Audio Video or PowerPoint will likely be the preferred method of choice for the vast majority of
presentations. Let’s consider the issues for this type of presentation before the next session on how
to actually use presentation aids and materials.
➢ When using any form of display, including PowerPoint etc., it must be visible and
clearly seen by all in the room. Frustration, boredom and drift will occur with those
members of the audience who cannot visually participate.
➢ When using such things as slides or written displays check font size so that everyone
can see and read it clearly. PowerPoint slides are the biggest offender here when a
presenter writes it on a PC and it reads clearly, only to fail to transpose that to a
room of 40 people from a small projector screen.
➢ A font size of 28 or above is recommended.
P a g e | 29
➢ Don’t clutter slides with fancy background art.
➢ PowerPoint slides should only contain headings, not the speech.
➢ PowerPoint slides are a summary of your key points, which you use as prompts.
Slides should not be a script for you to follow and constantly look at and read out.
Adult education and training is ineffective when using complex text slides.
➢ The presenter must engage the audience with knowledge, a message or facts
delivered as person-to-person rather than just explain what is written on the slides
or display boards.
➢ The use of artwork, cartoons, sketches, maps, diagrams etc. are all useful to
enhance your presentation and generally hold interest better than text. Do not use
graphics just for the sake of your artistic enjoyment, they must be relevant.
P a g e | 30
Presentation aids quick evaluation:
Suggested aids
Positive
Negative
Computer simulations and
presentations
Up to date technology
Can fail and no back-up style can
reduce presentation to a talk fest
Diagrams, charts and posters
Models
Novel, visual and different
Needs presenter to be aware of this
style and fully conversant.
Overhead projector
Paper-based materials
OHP is now different, novel and
can be engaging. Paper is
always used in some form.
OHP is old school, and equipment
can be equally old and faulty. Paper
is negatively regarded by
environmentally conscious
audiences.
Video and audio recordings
Enhancement items are good
to break the boredom or to
engage the audience.
Be aware of using video and audio
for the wrong reasons! Relevancy
can be the biggest negative.
Whiteboard
Good aid to make instant
points or record instant
comments from the audience.
Can be dangerous if the presenter
cannot write clearly! Old school and
comes with, “where are the marker
pens”?
Computers and peripherals
Modern, technically impressive
and can create almost any type
of presentation.
Can fail and no back-up style can
reduce presentation to a talk fest
Resources and methods quick evaluation:
Resources & methods
Positive
Negative
Audio CDs / DVDs
Flexible and can be used at any
time.
Provides good adjunct imagery
and sound to a presentation.
Old technology can be misplaced or
damaged.
A computer is more reliable and
contains both audio and images.
Online Videos / Online Audios /
Website
Can be useful to connect to a
current video or international
connection.
Like all internet connections, it may
be unreliable and should not be the
main point of a presentation.
PowerPoint or Similar
Presentation Software
Flash presentations
The most common therefore
generally the most reliable.
Flash in particular is not compatible
with all software applications.
Skype/Zoom
One on one interviews
Requires stable internet
connections for all parties.
P a g e | 31
1.4 – Select most appropriate application or platform to produce
presentation, in accordance with available resources and organisational
policies
There are applications or apps, also called software or computer programs, designed to create and
edit presentations. They vary in complexity from simple programs through to sophisticated
programs such as Microsoft PowerPoint.
In a business environment, the organisation will select which presentation software to use based on
organisational needs. Some programs are open source software, meaning they are freely available.
Open source, however, is not supported by a vendor but by a community of volunteer enthusiasts.
This can mean there is a risk in using open source, so most organisations opt for presentation
software or applications from a well-recognised vendor.
Software provided by a vendor can be purchased outright or via a subscription. Software provided
under the subscription model requires regular payments (usually annually) but is fully supported by
the vendor and if a newer version is released the subscriber is allowed to update to the latest
release. Software purchased outright is usually supported in so far as updates to address bugs or
security issues but normally does not include updates to new releases.
Fully featured applications are usually used by organisations. Most organisations opt for software
like PowerPoint but some are moving towards online hosted solutions such as Google Slides. Most
presentation software is designed to behave the same way as PowerPoint, and in most cases
produce document files that are PowerPoint compatible.
Software or apps can be installed on the user’s computer or on a server and run over a network.
Some applications are hosted on the Internet and the user creates a presentation before
downloading it. If a program or app is hosted it is sometimes referred to as software as a service.
Software as a service means the user is confident they are using the latest version of the program.
Software that is downloaded and installed, either locally or on an organisation’s server, needs to be
updated and maintained by the organisation.
In addition, some organisations use
portable digital devices, such as an
iPad or table, to allow workers
moving around access to productivity
software. The advent of online
software and file storage has made
this a viable option.
P a g e | 32
Activity 1D
P a g e | 33
2. Create presentation
2.1 Plan and prepare slides, notes and handouts according to organisational and task requirements and
image and style requirements
2.2 Use application functions for consistency of design and layout, to meet identified
presentation requirements
2.3 Balance presentation features for visual impact and emphasis
2.4 Use advanced application features to streamline and customise presentation for different audiences
2.5 Prepare presentation within designated timeline
2.6 Use relevant help functions to overcome issues relating to presentation creation, if necessary
P a g e | 34
2.1 – Plan and prepare slides, notes and handouts according to organisational
and task requirements and image and style requirements
Organisational and task requirements may include:
➢ Company colour scheme
➢ Company logo
➢ Corporate image
➢ Music
➢ Organisation name, time, date, occasion
etc. In header/footer
➢ Organisational video clip.
Distractions may include:
➢ Heavy colour
➢ Insufficient colour separation (background to text)
➢ Irrelevant animation
➢ Multiple transitions
➢ Overly busy background
➢ Overuse of sound
➢ Too many words or pictures per slide
➢ Too small fonts.
Try to include, observe and incorporate:
➢ Key phrases about your topic
➢ Limit punctuation and avoid all capital letters
➢ Avoid fancy fonts
➢ Use contrasting colours for text and background
➢ Use slide designs effectively
➢ Limit the number of slides
➢ Use photos, charts and graphs
➢ Avoid excessive use of slide transitions and animations
➢ Make sure your presentation can run on any computer.
P a g e | 35
Design slides, notes and hand-out masters
➢ When addressing the question of design slides, notes and handout masters the sky
is the limit unless you are guided by specific organisational and task requirements.
➢ Previously we discussed the purpose, the audience and the other various areas of
consideration, so it is assumed that has been addressed and the specific
organisational and task requirements are in place.
➢ Whatever those specifics are, you will need to include holistically in relation to any
image and preferred style.
The slide master used in PowerPoint (2013)
[View > Master Views > Slide Master]
➢ Using the slide master allows you to change font colours and styles for every slide
add a clipart or picture to every slide add a footer or date to every slide.
P a g e | 36
Design the master slide
Important: Before you spend a lot of time creating or customising a master slide, clarify your goal
first. If what you are trying to accomplish involves applying a colour scheme, fonts, effects, layouts,
or backgrounds, what you likely will need is a theme.
➢ Some suggest ignoring themes or the provided examples of the PowerPoint design
template.
➢ PowerPoint templates adopt a design element that look more like a document and
branded as such.
➢ Pre-designed templates and themes may add unnecessary clutter and distraction
from the intended visual impact of a slide.
Maybe consider starting from a clean blank slide
➢ Some templates that are included in the PowerPoint
stable are very much overused and are seen almost
at every seminar or conference.
➢ Consider that your slide design is a method of
communication and does not need fancy artwork or
pretty background colours?
➢ After all, in most presentations you are only using slides as a text prompt to help
focus the audience on what you are saying, not looking at the slides.
➢ Everything you add to your slides should have a positive impact on the message you
are communicating.
➢ If your presentation is in fact a photo ensemble or montage of visual work, then
that is what you would design it around.
What about corporate template images?
➢ Just about every organisation has a template that you would
be required to use as part of incorporating organisational and
task requirements in relation to the image and preferred style
of your particular presentation.
➢ Even so, with the right consideration to space for text, the
company or organisation logo can still be a feature.
➢ Consider not using the organisation logo on every slide, but
just the opening one or two.
Consider not using the logo because:
➢ The audience know who you are.
P a g e | 37
➢ The audience are not going to forget the company you represent.
➢ The audience does not need to be reminded on every slide.
➢ This is especially applicable for internal company presentations.
A company logo featured on every slide of your presentation may look like an infomercial for your
company and totally lose the audience.
➢ Don’t get resistance to your presentation at the outset as this is obviously not the
outcome you want.
➢ Logos take up valuable space.
➢ If you can get approval…if approval is needed, just use a coloured slide in the
company colours!
Notes and hand-outs
➢ Fortunately, PowerPoint lets you add personal notes to your slide, text that only
you get to see.
➢ This allows you to plan out your presentation and outline what you are actually
going to say.
➢ You can create notes pages as you build your presentation.
➢ You may want to print them and review them as you deliver your presentation.
A Green Idea…
However, before printing notes pages, consider viewing your notes in Presenter View. You can view
your notes as you deliver your presentation on a second monitor, and this will help to conserve
paper and printer ink.
Create notes pages
[View > Presentation Views > Notes Page]
Use the notes pane in Normal view to write notes about your slides.
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Notes pane in Normal view
➢ You can type and format your notes as you work in Normal view, but to see how
your notes pages will print and to see the full effect of any text formatting, such as
font colours, switch to Notes Page view.
➢ You can also check and change the headers and footers of your notes in Notes Page
view.
Each notes page shows a slide thumbnail, along with the notes that go with that slide. In Notes Page
view, you can embellish your notes with charts, pictures, tables, or other illustrations.
Hand out notes
[View > Master Views > Handout Master]
➢ You can print your presentation in the form of handouts — with one, two, three,
four, six, or nine slides on a page — that your audience can use for futurereference.
P a g e | 39
➢ You can select a layout for your handouts from the Ribbon.
[File > Print]
Previewing your hand-out
From the Print page you can adjust your print preferences and view a preview of how your
document will look when printed.
P a g e | 40
Hand-out master
➢ If you want to change the look, positions, and size of the header and footer text,
date, or page number on your handouts, make the changes to the handout master.
➢ To include a name or logo that should appear on every page of the handout, add it
to the master.
➢ Changes you make to the handout master also appear when you print an outline.
Avoiding distractions
Check your PowerPoint presentation before presenting it
➢ There are usually several things in many PowerPoint presentations that distract
audiences. Going through a trial run can be a valuable exercise.
These are the obvious culprits:
➢ Wrong colour combinations
➢ Wrong or inconsistent fonts
➢ Overall slide design layout
➢ Using excessive and sometimes unrelated
animation
➢ Inappropriate and distractive sounds
➢ Unreadable fonts
➢ Lengthy text
➢ Poor slide sequencing
Using storyboards may help you plan your presentation
➢ A storyboard is a document which specifies the visual elements, text elements,
audio elements, interactions and branching (where the system or user will go next)
of every screen.
➢ It is basically used to express our ideas and thoughts.
The storyboard is usually created by a person on your team or by a graphic artist if there are
complex illustrations and art to be shown in your presentation.
➢ For a simple text based presentation it is still useful to look over the plan using a
storyboard. This helps you to produce and incorporate organisational and task
requirements in relation to image and preferred style and avoiding distractions.
P a g e | 41
➢ The storyboard is then usually reviewed by someone else within your organisation
or if appropriate, by your client.
Types of Storyboard
Textual approach
➢ Some prefer to follow the storyboard with textual description, which may be much
quicker, but may not be as informative to some people.
Visual approach
➢ Visual storyboard is common as the picture is considered worth more than the
textual description and can be more appealing.
➢ Creating a storyboard is very similar to simply creating a new slide and working on
it.
The preferred outcome in all instances
➢ Make your media transparent.
➢ It’s easy to lose your presentation’s focus if your slides are filled with too many
graphic elements, animations, and special effects. Your slides should follow a simple
design that keeps you and your audience from being distracted by too much
happening on the screen.
➢ Create a dialog with your audience.
➢ Think of a presentation as a dialog in which the audience grants you permission to
speak first.
➢ While you deliver the presentation, you are the only one who’s speaking.
➢ You end the presentation when the audience gets to speak too.
➢ One way to spark a dialog is to focus and refine the story template so that it
addresses the audience’s concerns directly.
➢ Make sure that the story template anticipates any questions audience members
might have about your reasoning. In this way, you shift the primary function of
PowerPoint from a tool that supports the presenter to one that supports the
audience.
➢ Invite further dialog by asking questions throughout
your presentation. Your questions will help you
connect with your audience, and your
conversational tone will relax your audience and
encourage them to participate in your dialog.
If you spend the time to plan your presentation carefully, you
develop a deep confidence in your story. You are then free to
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Addressed In
2.1
improvise from the slides instead of being chained to just reading bullet points.
2.2 – Use application functions for consistency of design and layout, to meet
identified presentation requirements
Software functions may include:
➢ Backgrounds
➢ Colour schemes
➢ Creating templates
➢ Handout master
➢ Importing outlines from other applications
➢ Importing images and graphics
➢ Notes master
➢ Placeholders
➢ Slide master.
P a g e | 43
2.3 – Balance presentation features for visual impact and emphasis
A complete PowerPoint presentation includes some basic components:
➢ An intro
➢ Table of contents
➢ Multiple presentation slides
➢ Conclusion
➢ Closing slide that opens the floor for questions and comments
➢ Make sure the audience can read each slide easily.
Visual impact and emphasis
➢ Make sure each slide looks professional
➢ Professional does not mean fancy
➢ Professional visual impact is neat and organised.
Speelling Spelling!!
➢ Professional does mean correct spelling. Nothing is more
distracting than presenting a PowerPoint presentation with obvious
spelling errors or place names, people names spelt incorrectly.
➢ Make sure the information on each slide is grammatically accurate.
➢ Failure to present correct spelling and grammar will immediately question your
credibility.
As previously discussed limit the text on slides
➢ Not a good idea to include information on a slide that isn’t covered in your speech.
➢ Limit the amount of information on each side
➢ Keep it simple
➢ A visual aid should make one point, and that’s it.
P a g e | 44
Don’t hide behind your visual impact and emphasis
➢ In some instances the PowerPoint presentation can create as barrier between the
speaker and the audience.
➢ An effective and professional speaker needs to create a sense
of dialogue with the audience, and you can’t do that if you
hide in a corner and let your slides speak for you.
➢ Stand in full view of your audience and make eye contact
with them throughout the presentation.
Don’t read the slides word for word. This is very unprofessional and looks as if
you are reading someone else’s slides!
➢ Make sure the technology is working.
If anything is going to fail first it will be the technology.
➢ Leave plenty of time to make sure the PowerPoint setup is functioning properly.
➢ Test it and retest it if you have the time.
➢ Make sure you know how to fix immediate and simple AV errors if there is no
technical person nearby.
➢ Have a backup plan in case the technology fails you totally.
➢ Pre-print your sides ahead of time and be prepared to use them as the alternative if
necessary.
➢ Don’t rely on transparencies as a backup, as this is very, very old technology and
OHP are becoming obsolete.
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2.4 – Use advanced application features to streamline and customise
presentation for different audiences
What are Advanced Features?
➢ Advanced Features are not used all the time and are not essential to the basic
program.
➢ Advanced Features allow you to fine tune and control your work.
➢ Advanced features can be found by using alternative software
applications to that which is generally regarded as industry
standard, e.g., Microsoft PowerPoint.
Presentation for different audiences
➢ Delivering the same presentation to different audiences.
➢ You can select slides from an existing presentation that are more
appropriate for a particular audience.
Create a custom slide show
➢ When you need to deliver a presentation for a particular audience from an existing
presentation choose a custom slide show from a list in PowerPoint.
➢ Many of the slides could be the same for both groups, or you can select a subset of
the slides suitable for the particular audience.
On-the-spot customisation
➢ Sometimes you need to make an on-the-spot decision on showing slides during a
presentation
➢ You can give yourself this flexibility by hiding the slide so that you can skip over it if
its information doesn’t seem useful to a particular audience.
➢ If you decide to include the slide’s information in the presentation, you can display
it by pressing the letter H or by using the Go To Slide command in PowerPoint.
Other examples of advanced software features may include:
➢ Animations and Transitions in PowerPoint
➢ Photos, Graphics, Clipart in PowerPoint
➢ PowerPoint Custom Shows. Making a custom show in PowerPoint is a method of
playing only a few select slides from a much larger presentation.
➢ Sound – Music – Narration in PowerPoint
➢ YouTube Videos in PowerPoint. The use of videos already created on YouTube can
save you lots of time. Link to or embed them in your PowerPoint presentations.
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➢ Movies or Videos in PowerPoint. Short movie or video clips can be added into
PowerPoint presentations similar to YouTube.
➢ Running your presentation in a loop.
➢ Changing slide transition.
Using advanced software may require advanced skills?
➢ Advanced skills will hopefully give you fine-tuning ability and control over designing
and presenting your presentation, especially if you are responsible for the entire
project.
➢ Relying on a technical person may not always be an option.
These include:
➢ Customisation
➢ Enhancing text and objects
➢ Working with other applications
➢ Managing slide shows
Working with other applications
➢ Using advanced software features to streamline and customise the presentation for
different audiences you have options for alternative software to get the job done.
➢ Even if PowerPoint is regarded as industry standard, you don’t have to use
Microsoft PowerPoint if you wish to explore advanced or alternative features.
➢ Many people would argue there are better tools for the job.
Apple’s Keynote
➢ Apple’s Keynote can be purchased as a stand-alone product, or as part of a suite.
➢ It’s probably one of the most intuitive, easy-to-use and template-heavy
presentation applications around.
Google Docs
➢ Google Docs’ presentations module has been recently updated to make it more
compatible with those who are moving from using Microsoft Office, or for those
who want a more robust presentations tool.
➢ Google Docs offers a wealth of templates and presentation creation tools that are
easy get started with, animations and slide transitions to make your presentation
interesting to watch, and even collaborative presentation editing with other people
on your team.
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Prezi
➢ Prezi takes presentations in a different direction than static slides on a screen or
projector with text on them.
➢ Even the animations and transitions available in other slideshow applications pale in
comparison to Prezi’s zooming user interface, which puts entire slides in motion and
focuses heavily on images, graphics and motion to draw attention to text.
➢ To some, it’s all too overwhelming and distracting from the core message of the
presentation.
➢ Using Prezi in a school student environment is great for students to quickly put
together a presentation.
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2.5 – Prepare presentation within designated timeline
It is vital that presentations are prepared within designated timelines as to not stall the progression
of the subject being presented whether this be a project or a new policy.
Designated timelines may include:
➢ Organisational timeline e.g. conference deadline requirements
➢ Timeline agreed with internal or external client
➢ Timeline agreed with supervisor or person requiring presentation.
2.6 – Use relevant help functions to overcome issues relating to presentation
creation, if necessary
IF you encounter a problem while creating a presentation you will want a solution as soon as
possible.
There are some good resources available, such as:
➢ Internet
➢ Online help
➢ Manuals
➢ Readme files
➢ Technical support
➢ Coproate help desks
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➢ Training
Internet
The Internet is a valuable source of help. User groups and forums are good places to seek help from
other users. Forums normally have a rapid turnaround; there are usually other users browsing the
forum irrespective of the day or time.
The manufacturer’s website is a good resource. Quite often they have frequently asked questions
(FAQ) and other pages that provide information about using their products. Vendor websites can be
searched for patches which update the program to remedy bugs and add enhancements.
Online help
Most software and hardware manufacturers provide online help with their products. The online help
might be an electronic version of the documentation that came with the product, a more
comprehensive version of the accompanying manual or a specially crafted electronic help system
that responses interactively.
Manuals
Originally, software and hardware was shipped with a comprehensive user manual that covered
installation and product usage. Now most manufacturers have reduced cost by shipping a minimum
of user documentation. The full manual may be provided in electronic form on the installation
disk/software download file.
Readme files
Readme files are the files manufacturers provide that have the latest information in them. They are
used in conjunction with the user documentation.
Technical support is the support provided by manufacturers. You might access technical support via
the telephone, email or over the Internet.
Corporate help desks
Some large organisations have employees trained to help other users within the organisation. This is
known as the help desk. Some larger vendors provide a similar functionality when you make large
(expensive) purchases.
Quite often someone in the organisation will become a de facto help desk, based on their
experience, understanding and ability to help other with computer issues.
Training
Training is perhaps the best support resource, although not necessarily the most timely.
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Well-structured training will provide you with the skills to be productive and the underpinning
knowledge and skills to get the best out of your computer systems.
Help that comes with a program
Online help is a comprehensive help system provided by the manufacturer.
Some of the simpler systems are just comprehensive manuals provided as part of the installation
process. These systems rely on you either printing the manual in full then use the manual as you
would any other book or searching the file with a reader, such as Adobe Reader if the manual is a
.pdf (Portable Document Format) file.
HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) is the most
common form of online help. The author of the help
system creates a series of topics, linked by a table of
contents and an index. Help is presented in a similar
way as a website and installed on your computer at
the same time as the program.
An older form of help system is the CHM format,
which uses HTML topics compiled into a single
compressed file. CHM files rely on your Internet
browser to provide readability, but open in their
own window that bears little resemblance to a
browser window. There have been some security
issues with CHM files and security updates since
2002 have affected the readability of the CHM
files on some systems.
Dot Net (.Net) help is HTML help embedded into a newer applications using the .Net framework.
.Net help is embedded into the application and opens in its own window as part of the user
interface.
HTML, CHM and .Net help can all be context sensitive. That means the topics are linked to parts of
the user interface and pressing the F1 key will open the help system at the topic for the current
window. Context sensitive help can be linked to individual controls, such as text boxes, but help
seldom is provided in such detail.
Good help systems have a table of contents, an index and search functionality. Some help systems
use your Internet connection to link with the manufacturer’s website to provide up-to-date topics
and information.
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Using Help
PowerPoint 2016 uses a form of online context sensitive help. Using context sensitive help is easy,
click F1 and the help opens to the topic the system designer has assigned to the control that is being
used when you open the help system. If the help has not been mapped to controls, the help system
opens and displays the default topic.
Help can also be accessed by entering information in the ‘Tell me what you want to do’ search box in
the top right-hand corner of the application window.
Topics can be found by entering key words in the search box and clicking ‘Search’. For example, you
want to change your slide background so you conduct a search. As you type the search results are
dynamically updated.
The help system provides matches based on the words you have entered. Clicking one of the results
will open the help topic.
Clicking ‘Smart Lookup’ will open a pane, which can be docked, showing the results of a web search
using the words entered in the search box.
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If you are connected to the Internet, clicking ‘Get Help’ will search Microsoft’s website for the latest
topics.
If the computer is not connected to the Internet the search will be conducted on the help files
installed with PowerPoint.
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No matter which help system is used, the best matches are displayed at the top of the list. Scroll
through the results and click the article that best matches your needs. Sometimes links can be links
to instructional videos.
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Activity 2F
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3. Finalise presentation
3.1 Check presentation for spelling and consistency in presentation features and style, in accordance
with task requirements
3.2 Prepare presentation materials for delivery in accordance with presenter or audience requirements
3.3 Name and store presentation appropriately, in accordance with organisational
requirements and exit application without information loss
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3.1 – Check presentation for spelling and consistency in presentation features
and style, in accordance with task requirements
3.2 – Prepare presentation materials for delivery in accordance with
presenter or audience requirements
Check presentation for spelling
➢ As mentioned previously, spelling and grammar mistakes can distract from the work
that you put into your presentation, so you obviously want to eliminate these
mistakes.
➢ You probably have your own methods and preferences for how to help you do this.
➢ You might prefer to check spelling all at once when you finish a presentation, or you
might want to use automatic spelling and grammar checking while you are working.
Establish what you want to do
➢ Display the proofing options in the application
➢ Select the AutoCorrect options
➢ Select the spelling correction options that apply
➢ Change how the spelling checker works in the background
➢ Improve the spelling checker results by using contextual spelling
PowerPoint 2013
Turn on or off spelling check
1. Click the FILE button
2. At the bottom of the FILE menu, click Options
3. On the Options menu that appears, click Proofing.
4. Under When correcting spelling in PowerPoint, select or clear the Check spelling as
you type, or Use contextual spelling, or Hide spelling errors check box.
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Check spelling
1. Open a presentation that needs to be checked.
2. On the Review tab, in the Proofing group, click Spelling
3.
4. The Spelling dialog box appears, and the first suggested correction is highlighted.
5. Use the following buttons to check your spelling:
Consistency in presentation features
➢ As previously addressed, decide if your presentation is meant to entertain, inform,
persuade, or sell.
➢ Is a light-hearted or a more formal approach most appropriate to the subject and
your audience?
➢ Keep colours, clip art, and templates consistent with your main objective.
➢ Features and style have been covered elsewhere
Avoid info overload:
➢ If you overload your audience, you shut down the dialogue that is the most
important part of any interaction you wish to get from a presentation.
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➢ If there is no intention for feedback, open discussion or dialogue it is best to screen
a video or DVD instead.
Practice your delivery:
➢ A professional presentation can be very captivating and sometimes you may forget
about the audience and become absorbed in the talk.
➢ Practice your delivery over and over until you can be confident about staying on
track and the subject even with an exciting audience distraction.
Forget comedy:
➢ Most organisational based presenters will flirt
with the temptation to deliver the stand-up
humour.
➢ Remember your audience didn’t come to laugh at
you or them especially if it is a business
presentation.
➢ Leave your jokes at home. It’s ok to throw in a
few natural off the cuff laughs but don’t overdo it.
Pick powerful props:
➢ You don’t need a box full of props but a few simple props to demonstrate a point
can be memorable in the minds of your target audience.
Minimise you:
➢ Unless it’s the company Board of Directors, your audience most likely cares little
about your company history, as they do about whether you can help them solve the
specific problems they face.
➢ Write a script for your presentation that makes the audience the main character,
who face a problem that you will help them solve.
Speak the language:
➢ A memorable presentation will not work if you leave the audience wondering what
the hell you just said!
➢ It might be tempting to throw in a few big words but are you alienating your
audience?
➢ Always explain terms and acronyms.
➢ The number of smart executives who are not up on the latest terminology would
surprise you.
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Activity 3B
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3.3 – Name and store presentation appropriately, in accordance with
organisational requirements and exit application without information loss
Storing presentations may include:
➢ Authorised access
➢ Filing locations
➢ Organisational policy for backing
up files
➢ Organisational policy for filing hard
copies
➢ Security
➢ Storage in folders or sub-folders
➢ Storage on disk drives, USB, CD-ROM, backup tapes, server.
The responsibility for records management including storage, access, locations and security of
PowerPoint presentations and other organisation files should form part of a manual and policy
procedure.
➢ Your organisation would need to clearly specify how these actions are to be
addressed so that all employees are following a common policy and security
protocol.
➢ This is necessary to ensure that the infrastructure, systems, policies and procedures
are in place to support the security of digital records over time and with the change
of employees.
Maintaining the essential file characteristics for as long as they are required and for audit purposes
is critical.
Storage integrity
Storage on disk drives, USB, CD-ROM, backup tapes, servers and such can be particularly vulnerable
to obsolescence.
➢ It is necessary for your organisation to include some form of technology check as
part of the operating manual to ensure the technology used for storage is not
compromised.
➢ A regular monitoring of the condition and any faults within the storage systems and
subsequent duplication or transfer protocol should be undertaken.
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Costs of storage
Plan for the replacement or upgrade of remote servicers and other
expensive storage devices.
➢ Allocate adequate budget resources for all forms of digital
storage.
➢ Costs of digital preservation will vary according to the
strategies chosen, past and present controls and the
complexity of the digital equipment, size of the
organisation etc.
➢ Careful planning can help you to reduce costs significantly
and avoid being left with outdated storage equipment
facilities.
Saving your presentation is quite easy
➢ Simply go to the file menu, click save, and choose a name and place on your harddrive to save too.
➢ The resulting PowerPoint file will have either the “.ppt” or “.pptx” extension.
➢ You can then copy this PowerPoint file onto a CD, thumb drive or any number of
external drives and devices for safety and backup.
What are your organisations requirements?
➢ To save your presentation in the standard format, simply go to the Office Button
located at the top left, then choose Save.
➢ However to save the presentation in other formats, instead of going to save, go to
Save as.
➢ There are multiple formats that the presentation can be saved as.
PowerPoint Presentation
➢ This is the default format. The presentation will be saved as a PowerPoint 2007 file.
PowerPoint Show
➢ In this format when the PowerPoint file is launched the presentation will
automatically start.
PDF or XPS
➢ This format is entirely different from PowerPoint meaning that when the save file is
launched it will be launched in a PDF/XPS viewer.
➢ The reason for saving the presentation in this format is to ensure your printed or
viewed file keeps the original formatting.
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Storage: Thumb Drives, CD-ROM, external hard drives, Cloud storage and other
devices
Develop a Plan
➢ Before investing in a data storage solution, consult with a
trusted IT advisor on which option–or options–will best
meet your business’s current and future needs. Then
create a plan for storage at your organisation and base it
on the likely needs you will have and most importantly,
when and where it will be needed.
Flash memory thumb drives
➢ These types of drives are particularly appealing to mobile
professionals because they consume little power, are small enough to fit on a
keychain and have no moving parts.
External hard drives
➢ A simple and relatively inexpensive way to add more storage is to connect an
external hard disk drive to your computer.
➢ The danger is that files stored on the external drive but not elsewhere will need to
be backed up.
➢ Remember, you will need to take the external drive with you or remember to copy
the required files to a USB thumb drive.
CD or some other storage media
➢ Not very safe, can easily be damaged or lost.
➢ Small storage capacity compared to thumb drives, or external drives.
➢ Fewer devices have CD drives each year so access may be an issue.
Cloud storage
➢ Data theft is a real risk with several large Cloud storage companies being hacked in
recent years, however there are many ways to mitigate this risk and the risk may be
minimal depending on the type of data being stored.
➢ Storage cost is another factor – may services offer small storage cheap or for a low
fee, however as you transfer more and more data to the cloud you may find prices
escalate quickly.
Exit the application without information loss or damage
Clicking the Close button is the easiest way to close a file.
If you’ve made changes since the last time you saved the file, PowerPoint offers to save the changes
for you when you close the file.
Click Yes to save the file before closing or click No to abandon any changes.
➢ Click the Close button.
➢ Click the Office button and then choose Close.
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➢ Use the keyboard shortcut Ctrl+W.
Loss or damage
➢ If a PowerPoint presentation displays unusual or weird
behaviour after you have closed it and then reopened, it is likely corrupt.
➢ The corruption of files impacts on data accessibility,
damage or loss.
➢ The inaccessible data may only be accessed if you have
created a backup.
➢ It may be possible to effectively recovery .ppt or .pptx presentation and retrieve all
the data from the presentation.
➢ The presentation may become corrupt if it is mishandled, or due to improper
system shutdown, application malfunction, system crash, virus, etc.
Possible solutions – no guarantees!
Try the following troubleshooting methods to solve the issue:
➢ Try to open the presentation in Windows Safe mode, since system conflict at times
prevents the presentation from opening.
➢ Try dragging the PowerPoint presentation to the PowerPoint program file.
➢ Check if the presentation can be opened in Microsoft Windows Explorer.
➢ Insert the slides into a blank presentation.
➢ You may be able to open the temporary file by saving the .tmp file (with the same
name) as.ppt or .pptx file.
➢ See if the presentation opens in PowerPoint Viewer.
➢ Try opening the presentation in another system.
➢ Try moving the presentation to another disk.
➢ Use Scan Disk tool.
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Activity 3C
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Activity 4: Skills and Knowledge Activity
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Activity 5: Major Activity
An opportunity to revise the unit.
Your final piece of assessment will be an activity titled ‘Major Activity’. This is an opportunity to
revise the entire unit and allows your trainer to check your knowledge and understanding of what
you have covered. Once this is completed, you will have finished this unit and be ready to move onto
the next, well done!

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