EG7322 Lean Engineering

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EG7322 Lean Engineering
Session 9: JIT Basics (standardised work, 5S)
Marina Marinelli
MEng MSc PhD FHEA
m.marinelli@leicester.ac.uk
• The process tells the team member what to do, when to do it, and in what order.
• Standardised work is:
Standardised work
• The most effective combination of workers, materials, and machines for
the sake of making high-quality products cheaply, quickly, and safely.
• Safest, easiest and most effective way of doing the job that we currently
know.
• A process is simply a set of steps or actions with a clearly defined goal.
• A tool for developing, confirming, and improving our processes
Requires establishing precise procedures, highly specified as to the content,
the sequence, the timing and the outcome for each operator’s work in a
production process.
In the Lean system, standardised work is focused on human movement.
• We seek to develop people-centered processes that flow smoothly
and safely.
• Our measure of efficiency is labor density defined as follows:
Labor density = Work/Motion
Customer demand determines the numerator.
Toyota’s approach is to continually reduce the denominator.
Sequence: defines the best way to do each job action including
 Proper posture
 How the hands and feet should move
 How to hold the tools
 Accumulated know-how on the job
Standardised work
Standardised work guidelines
Hand movements should be symmetrical and concurrent.
Two-handed motions should be as compact as possible.
Standardised work guidelines
Standardised work guidelines
Standardised work guidelines
Standardised work guidelines
Standardised work guidelines
Work should be done within a circle with a diameter
of 1 yard and directly in front of the worker
Build flexibility into the layout to accommodate changes for taller or shorter operators
Standardised work guidelines
Identify home positions for tools and materials
Place tools and materials conveniently
Standardised work guidelines
Guidelines for Economy of Motion
Hand movements should be symmetrical and concurrent.
Two-handed motions should be as compact as possible.
Light work should be done with the hands and forearms, rather than the upper
arms and shoulders.
Motion should flow freely.
Work should be done in the “strong circle” a yard in diameter and directly in
front of the worker. Maintain appropriate body posture.
Keep hands free as much as possible.
Guidelines for Layout and Equipment
Identify home positions for tools and materials.
Build flexibility into the layout to accommodate demand changes and taller or shorter
operators.
Move parts horizontally. Avoid vertical part movement.
Use gravity to move parts (e.g., with sloping parts racks).
Place tools and materials conveniently.
Ensure adequate lighting.
Use colors.
Use U-shaped layouts so that process start and end points are side by side.
Standardised work guidelines
Guidelines for Tools and Jigs*
Develop jigs to eliminate manual holding of materials.
Use ergonomic tools (i.e., tools that are easy to grip, encourage good
hand/wrist posture, and minimize forces and vibration).
Combine tools where possible
Where possible, use balancers that automatically withdraw the tool from
point of use.
*A jig is a type of custom-made tool used to control the
location and/or motion of parts or other tools.
Standardised work guidelines
ΚΑΙΖΕΝ – Standardised work
Standardised work, once established and displayed at workstations, is the
object of continuous improvement through kaizen.
The act of continuous , incremental change and improvement
ΚΑΙΖΕΝ – Standardised work
Before the improvement, there was no jig
to hold the workpiece in place.
Instead, the assembly worker had to hold
down the workpiece with her left hand
while using her right hand to insert the
push buttons one by one.
ΚΑΙΖΕΝ – Standardised work
ΚΑΙΖΕΝ – Standardised work
After the improvement, the assembly
worker simply sets the workpiece into a
stabilizing jig and then can use both
hands to insert the push buttons.
In addition, the arrangement of push
buttons to be inserted was changed to
match their arrangement after insertion.
This helped to keep workers from
accidentally inserting push buttons in
the wrong places.
Standardised work
!! Standard work
Benefits
 Standard work supports stability and
reduces variation because the work is
performed the same way each time.
Stability means repeatability.
We need to meet our productivity,
quality, cost, lead time, safety, and
environmental targets every time.
 Variations (defects, deviations,
discrepancies) are easily recognised
 Clear start and stop points for each
process.
 Promotes audit and problem solving. We are able to ask important questions:
• Are team members able to do the process smoothly or are they falling behind?
• If they are falling behind, by how much and in what job elements?
• How can we improve these elements?
 Easier training of new operators –
preserves know-how /expertise
 Reduction on injuries and strain
 Standard work is essential for continuous improvement- moving from one standard
to a better one without slipping back.
 Adds discipline to the culture
Standardised work
!! Standard work
Benefits
 Promotes employee involvement:
In the Lean system team members
develop standardised work, supported
by supervisors and engineers.
Moreover, team members identify
opportunities for simple, inexpensive
error-proofing or poka-yoke devices.
To sustain
standardised
operations…
They must be established
factory-wide
and be well understood by
everyone
Signboards and other
visual tools should be
used to remind
workers of their duty to
maintain them
Signs containing graphics and
descriptions of the standard
operations should be at places
where the workers can see them
easily and compare them with
their own operational procedures
Reject the status quo, only then
will the operators’ minds remain
open to the possibility of further
improvement – improvement is
endless.
Standardised work
Check if there are any missing numbers in the range 1-49
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cNb28wpi-Nw
5S
The 5S system is designed to create a visual workplace, that is, a work
environment that is self-explaining, self-ordering, and self-improving

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Sort
“Only what is needed, in the amounts
it is needed, when it is needed!”
If in doubt throw it out!
5S
Time
Floor/shelf space
More and more…
Warehouses, equipment, people….
Set in Order / Straighten
“A place for everything and everything in its place.”
“WHAT is needed should be WHERE it should be , WHEN needed.”
5S
5S
Set in Order / Straighten
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v
=7TBSr8LHm1I
Visual controls
• Keeping everything spotlessly
clean
Shine
Storage areas
Equipment
Machinery
Aisles
Windows
Meeting rooms
Offices
Under Stairs
• Check the condition of equipment
• Ability to recognise minor changes in sound,
smell, temperature, vibration
• Inspection checksheets
• Solve the root cause of cleanliness problems
Inspect
5S
Standardise
Examples on standardisation
• What is needed and not needed
• Red-tag targets, frequency and
responsibilities
• Disposal procedures
• What signboards should look like and where
they should be posted
• What different colours mean
• Where people can walk
• Dangerous areas
• What protective clothing is required
• What equipment signage and footprints
should look like
• What to clean and inspect
• How to clean and inspect
• Who cleans and when
• Who checks
How are we going to maintain
our good condition?
Create standards!
Clear – Simple – Visual
S1
S2
S3
5S
Sustain 5S FOREVER!
 Training
 Promotion and communication
 Central report board with 5S targets,
 Current status
 Before and After photos
 Recognise excellence in 5S
 5S core group
• Safer work place
• More efficient / Shorter Process Lead Time
• Reduces defects / errors
• Defects / errors more easily identified
• Builds a culture of waste identification
• Builds morale
The 5Ss are the foundation block upon which we can lay flow production, visual
control, standard operations, and various other JIT building blocks.
There is no such thing as a factory that manufactures things well
without a strong 5S foundation.
5S
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5S: Designed to create a visual
workplace – a work environment
that is self-explaining, selfordering and self-improving.
Thank you

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