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252Assessment ToolsTheeisw-e Satisfaction Measure has high alpha reliabilit coefficientComponent Number of Items Mean Variance Alpha Reliability .86 Psychological 13 37.88 56.63 Educational 12 30.44 61.37 .90 Social 11 28.42 49.74 .88 Relaxation 4 12.76 9.11 .85 Physiological 6 14.95 27.33 .92 Aesthetic 5 12.73 13.64 .86 Total Scale 51 137.17 741.81 .96Use in Measuring Outcomes: The LSM can be used to measure whether a client is more satisfied with leisure in each of the six components comprising leisure satisfaction. Increases of one-half point show a significant change. Satisfaction in all areas should be above 3. One caution about using the LSM as an outcome measure is that the initial reaction to leisure education can be an increased dissatisfaction with leisure, probably because past leisure has been shown to be less than optimal.Degree of Skill Required to Administer and Score: The LSM was developed to be used with “normal” populations to self-administer and score. The back side requires the skills of a profes-sional with training in assessment and observation.Comments: Standards for the delivery of health care have recognized the importance of the satisfaction perceived by the client receiving services. While most often this evaluation in-volves determining perceived satisfaction with services and quality of services received, the client’s satisfaction with his/her leisure lifestyle is also an important element to measure. The LSM is also available in Spanish.Through 2002 the long form of the assessment was used. In 2002 Idyll Arbor, Inc. switched to the short form because there were some concerns about four of the questions on the long form. Scores may be compared between the two versions of the test.Suggested Levels: Idyll Arbor, Inc. recommends the following guidelines to help determine if a patient is cognitively able to comprehend the statements on the test sheets: Adapted IQ of 80 or above Mental Age of 12 years or above Rancho Los Amigos Level of 7 or above Reality Orientation Level of “Mild to No Orientation Disability”Distributor: Idyll Arbor, Inc., 39129 264th Ave SE, Enumclaw, WA 98022. 360-825-7797 (voice), 360-825-5670 (fax), www.ldyllArbor.com. Shown Here: This section contains the manual and form for the first page of the assessment. The second page for all of the Idyll Arbor Leisure Battery assessments is shown on page 260.
Measuring Attitudes253Leisure Satisfaction MeasureThe Leisure Satisfaction Measure was developed by Jacob G. Beard and Mounir G. Ragheb and published in the Journal of Leisure Research, 1980, Volume 12, Number 1, pp. 20-33. This version was developed by Idyll Arbor, Inc. with the permission of Beard and Ragheb. Through 2002 the long form of the assess-ment was used. In 2002 Idyll Arbor, Inc. switched to the short form because there were some concerns about four of the questions on the long form. Scores may be compared between the two versions of the test. Idyll Arbor, Inc. modified the assessment form and wrote a manual for the benefit of the recreational therapists who choose to administer the Leisure Sat-isfaction Measure (LSM). The back summary page of the LSM was developed by Idyll Arbor, Inc. and was not part of the original instrument. Purpose: The purpose of the Leisure Satisfaction Measure is to measure the degree to which a client perceives his/her general “needs” are being met th ough leisure.Definitions: Leisure activities are defined as non-ork activities in which the individual has a free choice as to whether or not to participate. These ac-L1 take place in one’s free time and there is no bligation as to what is chosen or to what extent one participates.
“i1sure satisfaction is defined as the positive percep-or feelings that an individual forms, elicits, or as a result of engaging in leisure activities and oices. It is the degree to which one is presently ontent or pleased with his/her general leisure experi-and situations. This positive feeling of con-en results from the satisfaction of felt or unfelt o stl e individual (Beard and Ragheb, 1980).
rea Measured: Being “satisfied” is a multi-di-onal feeling. An individual may be more satis-h his/her social life but be unhappy with ack of physical activity. To measure the indi-tut overall satisfaction on a scale from one to t out specifying areas of greater or lesser con-nr has little meaning for the client and for the . This assessment tool divides satisfaction of 4 ure into six categories:w ng= six description are taken from the L ‘SUM Research, 1980, Volume 12, 26
Psychological. Psychological benefits such as: a sense of freedom, enjoyment, involvement, and intellectual challenge.
Educational. Intellectual stimulation; helps them to learn about themselves and their surroundings.
Social. Rewarding relationships with other peo-ple.
Relaxation. Relief from the stress and strain of life.
Physiological. A means to develop physical fit-ness, stay healthy, control weight, and otherwise promote well-being.
Aesthetic. Aesthetic rewards. Individuals scoring high on this part view the areas in which they engage in their leisure activities as being pleas-ing, interesting, beautiful, and generally well de-signed.Supplies Needed: Idyll Arbor, Inc. form #A146, pen, LSM Manual. (No additional copies of the score sheet may be made. The therapist may order more score sheets from Idyll Arbor, Inc., 39129 264th Ave SE, Enumclaw, WA 98022. 360-825-7797.)Populations: Idyll Arbor, Inc. staff recommend the following guidelines to help determine if a client is cognitively able to comprehend the statements.O Adapted IQ of 80 or above G Mental age of 12 years or above O Rancho Los Amigos level of 7 or above O Reality orientation level of “Mild to No Orientation Disability”Time Needed: The recreational therapist should al-low between 5 and 20 minutes for the client to an-swer all 24 statements. Scoring (both sides of the score sheet) should take the therapist under 10 min-utes. In most cases the recreational therapist should be able to administer the assessment, score it, and write a brief summary/recommendation statement in 20 minutes or less.Reliability and Validity: The first step taken by the authors was to conduct a review of the theoretical literature. All the various effects (or gains as a result
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