Ethical and Responsible Leadership

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Ethical and Responsible Leadership
Organisational Culture and Leadership
Contents
Understanding Culture through multi-level nature of OB
What is Organisational Culture
Theories of organisational Culture
Leading/managing and Changing organisational Culture
What is Organisational Culture?
In simple terms, organisational culture is what is meant when someone in an organisation says ‘it is the way we do things around here..’
It is therefore a ‘way’ , a ‘style’ : the shared values and the expectations that make organisation different from one another.
Concerned with the identity of the organisation
Can be viewed as a pattern of learned assumptions about our thoughts, behaviour and actions, which are shared and transmitted among individuals in society
So it is difficult to define
McCarthy and Murphy ( 2016)
“The basic pattern of shared assumptions, values, beliefs, and practices that govern behaviour in an organisation; they are transmitted ( sometimes adapted) from one generation of employees to the next, and observed by all new organisational members” (McCarthy and Murphy, 2016, p.286).
There is no consensus of what culture is, how it operates, or its importance to organisations (King and Lawley, 2013)
Theoretical Models of Organisational Culture
Schein’s model
Charles Handy’s Model
Deal and Kennedy’s Model
Competing Value Framework
Deal and Kennedy (1982)
Identified a fourfold typology of culture, in which the choice of each culture depends on an assessment of organisational situations.
Process Culture – concerned with ensuring that members follow uniform procedures, and is associated with low risk higherachical organisations ( NHS)
Work Hard/Play Hard Culture – is team and customer focused and stresses fun at work ( Google)
Bet Your company culture – High investment, long term, highly technical members (NASA)
MaCho Culture – Fast decision making and high risks ( Merchant Banks)
(Bratton, 2015)
Charles Handy’s (1980) Typology
Exhibits single power source, with centralised policy and decision making
This type is organic, informal and product and project based, opposite of the role culture ( e.g. Mgt consultancy firm)
Is mechanistic and highly formalised, abounds with rules, and is dominated by authority and the hierarchical structure
This type centres around ‘star’ performers who are loosely attached to the organisation (BRATTON 2015)
Schein’s Model Of Culture
Schein proposed that there three ‘layers’ of organisational culture.
First there is a visible layer, that he termed surface manifestations
Next, the organisational values and believes
Third, there are ‘basic assumptions’.
(McCarthy and Murphy, 2016)
The Levels – Schein’s Model
Layer 1 : Surface- Level Manifestations
Artefacts: tangible manifestations of an organisation’s culture such as furniture, appliances, tools, clothing etc.
Symbols: are the visuals that represent the organization, usually in the form of company logos.
Norms: These are expected behaviours that demonstrated by members of the organization ( having lunch together, greetings on arrivals, punctuality etc.)
Ceremonial and Rituals: activities that express and reinforce and assumptions of an organisation’s culture
And language, mottos and slogans, physical layout etc.
(McCarthy and Murphy, 2016)
Competing Value Framework (CVF)
Market Culture : competitiveness and productivity is the main focus. Focus on these result in a strong emphasis o external positioning and control. Leaders in this type of culture tend to be goal-oriented
Clan Culture: Typical characteristics of an organization with a clan culture are teamwork, employee involvement programmes and corporate commitment to the employees. Usually paternalistic environments in which the leaders are viewed as mentors. Loyalty, tradition and emphasis on develop are strong.
Adhocracy Culture: major goal of an adhocracy culture is to foster adaptability, flexibility, and creativity so as to produce innovative products and services and adapt quickly to new opportunities. Leaders are risk takers.
McCarthy and Murphy ( 2016)
Managing/Leading/Changing Culture
Reframing social networks of symbols and meanings through artefacts, language, rituals and ceremonies
Initiating new HRM practices to change behaviours and norms
Introducing leadership process that aim to create motivation to change behaviour, with a particular emphasis on their symbolic content.
The role of leaders in creating an organisational culture
Leadership as maintenance and reproduction of organisational culture
Being ethical and responsible in managing and leading organisational Culture
(See Denham and Bratton,2020)
References
Northouse, P. G. 2016. Leadership: theory and practice.7th ed. Thousand Oaks: Sage publications Inc.
Athanasopoulou, A. and Dopson, S. (2015),Developing leaders by executive coaching: practice and evidence. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Denham, D and Bratton, J. (2020), Culture and Leadership in Bratton, J. (eds)Organisational Leadership, Sage Publications Ltd, London
Yukl, G. 2013. Leadership in organisations.8th ed. Essex: Pearson Education Ltd.
Goleman, D. (2004),What makes a leader? Harvard Business Review. 82(1), pp. 82-91.
Grint, K.(2010) Leadership: a very short introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
DeRue, D. S. (2011) Adaptive leadership theory: leading and following as a complex adaptive process. Research in organizational Behaviour. 31, pp.125-150. DV Day 2012 ‘The nature of leadership development’ in DV Day and J Antonakis (Eds) The Nature of Leadership, Sage: London
David V. Day, John W. Fleenor, Leanne E. Atwater, Rachel E. Sturm & Rob A. McKee 2014 ‘Advances in leader and leadership development: A review of 25 years of research and theory’ The Leadership Quarterly 25 63–82
Jeff Gold, Richard Thorpe and Alan Mumford 2010 Leadership and Management Development, CIPD: London
MW McCall Jr 2004 ‘Leadership development through experience’ Academy o/ Management Executive. Vol, 18, No. 3, pp. 127-130
McCarthy, J. and Murphy, C. ( 2016), Understanding Organisational Culture, in Organisational Behavour, eds Cross, C. and Carbery, R. Palgrave Macmillan Publishers Ltd, London.
Nick Petrie 2014 Future Trends in Leadership Development, Center for Creative Leadership: Greensboro, NC
Jeffrey Pfeffer 2015 Leadership BS, Harper Business: New York
Adair, J. (2011). John Adair’s 100 greatest ideas for effective leadership, John Wiley & Sons.
Yukl, G. (2013). Leadership in Organisations, 8th ed, Essex, Pearson Education Ltd.

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