increasing football participation

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Introduction to Sports Management – Week Seven
 Welcome
 Assessment Two
 Discussion Forum
 Start Module Four
“The FIFA Women’s World Cup 2023 will be the biggest
sporting event on Australian soil since the Sydney 2000
Olympic Games, showcasing Australia and New Zealand
to a global audience of over one billion people.”
Discussion Forum – Why are countries spending millions of dollars in the bidding process to
host major sporting events? Post your response at the Discussion Forum.
Football Australia plan to deliver immediate and long-term community benefits and economic impact from
Australia’s co-hosting of the FIFA Women’s World Cup 2023™ with the game’s Legacy ‘23 plan presented to
Federal Government in Canberra. The five (5) key pillars are focused on:
 PARTICIPATION: increasing football participation
 COMMUNITY FACILITIES: building and upgrading community facilities
 TOURISM AND INTERNATIONAL ENGAGEMENT: enhancing tourism and international engagement
 LEADERSHIP AND DEVELOPMENT: developing more female leaders, and
 HIGH PERFORMANCE: ensuring that Australia’s senior women’s national team, the Westfield Matildas,
enter the tournament as prepared as possible to compete deep in the competition
Student Activity – What sporting event would you like to be at in the next ten years?
Assessment Summary
Assessment Type
Reflective Journal –
My Sport Experience
1000 words
End of Week 4 – Sun Mar 14
Project Proposal for a
new sport (Report)
1500 words
End of Week 6 – Sun Mar 28
Final Report for a new
1500 words
End of Week 12 – Sun May 9
Assessment 2 and 3 are linked – you need to choose create a new sport, or modify an existing
sport, to attract a new market.
Assessment Three Brief
Develop the final form of the sport that you have invented including:
 Introduction to the sport – name, brief concept, season or time of year
 The target market – who will play this new sport?
 Mission and/or Vision Statement – what is the purpose of this new sport?
 Goals and SMART Objectives – how will you establish this sport in the next 3-5 years?
 Proposed Governance Structure – how would you structure the Board of Management?
 SWOT Analysis – table format with a minimum of five factors in each of the four segments
 Risk Matrix Table – potential risks and strategies to minimise them
 Final Rules including scoring and how to win
 Equipment and Uniforms required to play and to minimise risks
 Proposed Competition for the first year including – how many games (team sports) or events (individual sport) in the first year?
 Venues/Facilities – where will the sport be played and why?
 Proposed logo and colours (brand) of the new sport
 The sports position on ethics and social responsibility
 Proposed Funding Partners – commercial sponsors and government grants
 Proposed Launch – what event would you coordinate to launch this new sport?
 Conclusion – convince the reader that this sport has a future
Subject Overview
Module 1
Module 2
Module 3
Module 4
Module 5
Module 6
The Sports Industry
Governance and Risk
Sport Marketing and Media
Sport Tourism and Events
Sport Facilities and Venues
Professionalism and Ethics
Module Four Topics
 Sport Tourism defined
 Sport Tourist segments
 Event definitions and classifications
Next week:
 Event Impacts
 Event Planning and Conceptualisation
 Event Manuals
Module Four Readings
1. Module Four Lecture Slides
2. Dunning, E. (1999). Ch. 2 Sport in the Western civilizing process.
3. Frost, W., & Laing J. (2011). Strategic management of festivals
and events (2nd ed.)
4. Getz, D., Svensson, B., Peterssen, R., & Gunnervall, A. (2012).
Hallmark events: Definition, goals and planning process.
5. Quinn, B. (2013). Key concepts in event management.
6. Roberts, K (2016) Rio 2016: Study lifts the lid on the cost of
hosting the Olympic Games.
7. Refer video:
Module 4
Sport Tourism and Events
This Module
 Sport Tourism defined
 Sport Tourist segments
 Event definitions and classifications
 Event Impacts
 Event Planning and Conceptualisation
 Event Manuals
Sport Tourism Defined
Hinch and Higham (2011) defined Sport Tourism as:
“Individuals and/or groups of people who actively or passively
participate in competitive or recreational sport while travelling.
Sport is the prime motivation to travel, although the tourist
element may reinforce the overall experience”.
Hinch and Higham (2011) identified two trends that led to the
formalisation of sport tourism. The first was a heightened
interest in health and fitness in Western societies in the 1970s.
The second trend, from the 1980s, was an increasing demand
for active engagement in recreational pursuits while on holidays.
Hinch, T., & Higham, J. (2011). Sport Tourism Development (2nd ed.). Channel View: Bristol.
Sport Tourism Recognised
Sport Tourism was formally recognised in the 1980s, and the
Journal of Sport Tourism launched in 1993, but it was not new.
The first ancient Olympic Games held in Olympia in 776 BC,
attracted up to 40,000 people from all parts of the country.
The 1896 Olympics in Athens attracted 241 athletes from
Europe and the United States, and an estimated 80,000
spectators attended the opening night at Panathenaic Stadium.
Attendance at the modern Olympic Games and other sporting
events increased significantly as modes of transport improved.
Sport Tourism Segments
Hinch and Higham (2011) identified three market segments
for the sport tourism sector:
 Active Sport Tourism
 Event Sport Tourism
 Nostalgia Sport Tourism
Hinch and Higham (2011) acknowledged that, within each
segment, the commitment, competitiveness and engagement
of the sport tourist can differ significantly. Each segment has
smaller target markets, and possibly sub-cultures.
Active Sport Tourism
Active sport tourism: this segment includes people who seek
physical participation in competitive or non competitive sport.
This segment wants to be active – as individuals, in groups or
in sport teams – and it may be fun or serious competition.
These people enjoy a particular sport, for example running,
and enjoy training or competing at home. They then look for
opportunities away from home.
The amateur runner may seek an individual experience, like
high-altitude training in Kenya, or a social experience, and
register for the next World Masters Games.
Event Sport Tourism
Event sport tourism: this segment includes all people looking
to experience sporting events, usually as spectators.
This segment captures everyone who buys tickets to attend
a sporting event outside their home city, and also those
attending the event for business purposes (eg sponsors).
This segment captures a group of friends who travel for the
weekend to follow their favourite football team, or the family
who plan a holiday at the next host city of the Olympic Games.
This segment has seen formal ‘supporter groups’ created like
England’s ‘Barmy Army’ or Australia’s ‘Fanatics’.
Nostalgia Sport Tourism
Nostalgia sport tourism: this segment is for people looking to
reflect on the past or feel a strong connection with someone or
something that was important to them or their culture.
This segment incorporates sport museums, halls of fame,
collections of artefacts and memorabilia, sport reunions and
fantasy camps, often led by past players or coaches. This
segment also captures visitors to sport facilities that have had
a long association with a sport, sport team or athlete.
The MCG in Melbourne hosts large sporting events including
the AFL Grand Final and Boxing Day Test, but people also
travel to the stadium for its daily tours and sport museum.
Class Example
It is possible for a sport event to
capture all three market segments.
The Boston Marathon is the world’s
oldest annual marathon and attracts
30,000 elite and non-elite runners to
compete every year.
An additional 500,000 spectators line
the streets to support the runners.
The race starts in Hopkinton, and
this small town of 15,000 people will
build the world’s first International
Marathon Centre including a
museum and hall of fame.
Can you think of other examples?
Understanding Motivations
Sport Tourists are not homogenous in their motivations.
People will choose to take part in sport in certain ways based
upon a number of factors including:
 personal experience with the sport eg currently participating
or reliving past glory;
 their level of skill or fitness level;
 the need for material success, or the appearance of success;
 the need for social interaction or isolation;
 the quest for excitement and entertainment;
 access to the sport via media (attendance v stay at home?).
The Sport Event
Those who own, control, manage and market sport events
certainly understand the different motivations, and if not,
they conduct their own market research as they look for new
ways to expand their markets and maximise their profits.
Sport events have become global in their outlook and scope in
an effort to tap into the global market place.
In most countries everyday routines dictate our lives and our
social life is highly controlled, organised and regulated.
The sport event provides an opportunity to briefly break out
of the ordinary and allow for emotional arousal, exciting
behaviour and controlled conflict.
The Corporate Sport Event
Sport events are not just for athletes and spectators, they are
marketing and public relation tools.
Sport events are vehicles for corporate expansion – sport is
used to capture the attention and emotions of a global audience.
Corporations need symbols of success, excellence, productivity,
happiness, inclusion and belonging that they can use to identify
their organisation or product with.
Corporations will invest in sport events and in return expect that
patrons have identified with one or more of these symbols.
Sport as Entertainment
When a sport is converted into commercial entertainment,
its success depends upon meeting patron appeal, which
usually relates to:
 Uncertainty of event outcome – the result remains
undecided until the end.
 Risk/Reward – there are heightened physical or
emotional stresses or appearance of stresses.
 Display of excellence or curiosity – the performance
is considered excellent or unusual.
Sport events which display all three are remembered.
Sport as Entertainment
The commercialisation of sport has an influence on the goals
and structure of sport events:
 Sport events are established to generate profit rather than
for community and social purposes, for example changes to
rules or schedules to fit with corporate objectives;
 Sport events are social constructions and therefore
change in connection with social relationships and shifts in
social conditions and power relationships;
 Sport events are structured as total entertainment
packages complete with sideshows, bands, food and
beverage, fan zones and fireworks.
In November 2020 Cricket Australia were under pressure from broadcaster Channel 7
to deliver an exciting summer of cricket, and decided to add three new rules to the Big
Bash League. Players and fans were not consulted and expressed their concerns.
‘Ridiculous’ – Fans left unimpressed by new Big Bash League rules
(, November 16, 2020)
BBL 10: Shane Watson and Usman Khawaja criticize new rules in
upcoming BBL season (, November 17, 2020)
Event Definitions
Getz (2005) offers two definitions, one from the perspective of
the event organiser and one from the perspective of the guest:
“A special event is a one time or infrequently occurring event
outside of normal programs or activities of the
sponsoring or organising body”.
“To the customer or guest, a special event is an opportunity for
a leisure, social or cultural experience outside of the normal
range of choices or beyond everyday experiences”.
Getz, D. (2005) Event Management and Event Tourism: Second Edition, Cognizant Communication Corp: New York
Event Definitions
Allen et al (2010) highlight in their definition that certain elements are combined
by the event organiser to create a unique event for the guest:
“The specific rituals, presentations, performances or celebrations that are
consciously planned and created to mark special occasions or to achieve
particular social, cultural or corporate goals and objectives”.
Allen, J., O’Toole, W., Harris, R. and McDonnell, I. (2010) Festival and Special Events Management: Fifth Edition, Wiley & Sons: Qld.
Core phenomenon of events
 Events are universal – every culture and society has some
form of special event;
 Events are things (phenomena) that can be experienced;
 Events have meaning and that meaning can be interpreted
differently by people at the same event;
 Events have rituals that over time define the event and
contribute to the experience and its meaning.
The Opening Ceremony of the Olympic Games is a ritual that
is expected as part of the event and allows the host city to
share its culture and define its position in the world.
Understanding the experience
The role of the sport/event manager is to understand the
audience and the experience they are seeking.
Each event will evoke multiple experiences and meanings,
not always in harmony with one another.
The experience will flow and peak throughout the event.
The experience is designed by a small team who have the
responsibility for the event from conception to conclusion.
Event Categorisation
Events can be categorised on both type and size:
Types of events: Sport
Art and Cultural
Food and Wine
Meetings, incentives, conferences, exhibitions
Size of events: Global (mega)
Minor (local)
Global (mega) Events
 Largest type of event, global audience
 International in scope – athletes, visitors, media, audience
Examples in Sport:
 Olympic and Paralympic Games
 World Cups – FIFA, Rugby, Cricket
 Commonwealth Games
 Formula One Grand Prix
 NFL Superbowl
 Do you agree?
 Any others?
Hallmark Events
 Recurring events linked to a specific region or destination;
 The event may attract a global television audience but it
may depend on who is playing;
 People travel to the event because of the unique
relationship between the sport, its tradition and destination.
Examples in Sport:
 Wimbledon
 Melbourne Cup
 Tour De France
 FA Cup Final at Wembley
Major Events
 Significant national and local attendance
 Will attract a few thousand international tourists
Examples in Sport:
 Golf grand slams x 4
 Tennis grand slams including Australian Open
 UEFA Champions League
 NBA Finals
 Test Cricket Series (eg Ashes)
 NRL State of Origin
 AFL and NRL Grand Finals
Minor (local) Events
 Town, city or regional events
 Most events are of this size
 May attract some tourists but not many
Examples in Sport:
 Sport Carnivals
 State or National Championships
 Final Series and Grand Finals
 Sport Conferences and Exhibitions
 Award Ceremonies
Importance v Impact
The size of the event does not dictate its importance. A junior
swimming carnival (minor event) is still very important to the
children and coaches involved, and the people managing it.
A similar planning process is required for the swimming
carnival as would be adopted for the Olympic Games, you
simply have fewer resources and require less time.
The size of the event is an indicator of its impact – the impact
that the event will have on the host community. The Olympic
Games has a far greater impact on the host city – its citizens
and government – and is therefore given ‘mega’ status.
Impact of Events
The impact of events can be both positive and negative:
 Economic – job creation and income (direct and indirect)
 Infrastructure – facilities, hotels, roads, rail, airports
 Building civic and national pride
 Tourism – during and post event
 Inflation due to demand
 Environmental – pollution, waste, noise
 Anti-social behaviour – Alcohol and drug abuse, gambling
 Jingoism (extreme patriotism) and insular behaviour
 Reputation – event failure
Impact of Events
Governments have realised that, if managed correctly, sport events
can be used as a tool for:
Economic benefit – since the 1984 Olympics global sporting events do
generate income, but not always.
Social and cultural benefit – increased exposure to different cultures and
Infrastructure investment – construction of sport facilities and supporting
infrastructure to accommodate the rise in visitation.
Foreign policy – showing off the nation’s sporting prowess and success
in other industries which can contribute to foreign trade.
Nation building – Bringing the local population together in celebration
and solidarity.
Government Agencies
All state governments have agencies dedicated to securing
and managing events – event corporations and QANGOs
(Quasi Autonomous Non-Government Organisation).
The agencies are usually aligned to the Minister for Tourism
and have responsibility for all event types (sport, art etc).
 Destination NSW
 Events SA
 Visit Victoria
 Events ACT
 Tourism WA
 Events Tasmania
 Events Management Qld
 NT Major Events Company
Events, venues and attractions
The alignment of events to a larger tourism department allows
each government to promote and package other venues and
attractions in each region.
Attractions are features that attract a visitor to a particular
location – not particularly sport oriented but can be used to
attract sport events and the fans and media that follow.
Natural attractions: beaches, national parks, flora & fauna
Cultural attractions: festivals, cuisine, Indigenous art
Built attractions: iconic buildings, precincts, theme parks

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