Introduction to Sports Management

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Introduction to Sports Management – Week Two
 Welcome
 Assessment Summary
 Discussion Forums
 Review Week One
 Complete Module One
Happy New Zealanders celebrate their win against Australia in the first of five T20 matches. The
Aussies have their best cricketers at home and a T20 World Cup in India in only eight months.
The International Olympic Committee has designated Brisbane its preferred host city for the 2032 Summer Olympic Games, awarding
Queensland exclusive negotiation rights for the event and making Australia the overwhelming favourite to host its third-ever Olympic Games.
The IOC executive voted unanimously overnight to approve the decision made by their Future Host Summer Commission, with IOC President
Thomas Bach announcing the decision to reporters this morning.
Brisbane beat out numerous other cities, including Budapest, Istanbul, Doha, New Delhi and Germany’s Rhine Ruhr region, which had all
previously flagged interest in hosting the 2032 Games.
“The IOC is seizing the momentum offered by the excellent project of Brisbane 2032 and the Australian Olympic Committee, in this way
bringing stability to the Olympic Games. The main reason Brisbane 2032 was proposed for the targeted dialogue are: the very advanced games
concept … using 80 to 90 per cent of existing or temporary venues, the venue masterplan, the high levels of expertise in hosting major
international sporting events [and] the favourable climate conditions for athletes in July and August.”

What we know today, Thursday February 25


Student Exercise
Given the success of the Australian Open, and the need to grow the game of Cricket,
should Cricket Australia be playing test cricket in South Africa now?
Student Exercise
Given the decision to avoid South Africa, should Australia be sending athletes to the
Tokyo 2021 Olympics?
Student Exercise
Should elite athletes be given priority for the COVID-19 vaccine given it is their employment,
and they provide employment for others, plus entertainment for a global audience?
Subject Overview
Module 1
Module 2
Module 3
Module 4
Module 5
Module 6
The Sports Industry
Governance and Risk
Sport Marketing and Media
Sport Tourism and Events
Sport Facilities and Venues
Professionalism and Ethics
Assessment Summary
Assessment
Assessment Type
Length
Due
Weight
1
Reflective Journal –
My Sport Experience
1000 words
End of Week 4 – Sun Mar 14
20%
2
Project Proposal for a
new sport (Report)
1500 words
End of Week 6 – Sun Mar 28
40%
3
Final Report for a new
sport
1500 words
End of Week 12 – Sun May 9
40%
Assessment 2 and 3 are linked – you need to choose create a new sport, or modify an existing
sport, to attract a new market.
Assessment One – Reflective Journal: My Sport Experience
Assessment 1 requires you to reflect on previous experiences you have had in sport as a participant, spectator, coach,
official or volunteer. When sharing your experience think about the emotions you felt, the impact of the sport on you
and other people involved, and any issues or outcomes from the experience that you still think about.
This reflection will help you with Assessment 2 and 3 where you will be creating a new sport or modifying an
existing sport for other people. Consider the following:
 What was your first involvement in sport?
 Who influenced your involvement in sport?
 Did you focus on one sport or try multiple sports?
 Were your sport experiences positive, negative or a combination of both?
 What feelings or emotions did your sport experiences evoke?
 Do you recall any risks or ethical issues from your sport experiences?
Assessment One – Reflective Journal: My Sport Experience
When you have finished your reflection write a paper that addresses the following:
 A brief summary of your introduction to sport
 A sporting experience that has provided positive memories for you
 The factors, conditions or people that contributed to this positive experience
 Any risks, social or ethical issues that influenced this experience
 How this experience shaped your interest in the management of sport today.
Make sure you check the Assessment Brief and the Rubric:
 Content Audience and Purpose 30%
 Personal autonomy, accountability and reflective skill 40%
 Effective Communication 30%
Discussion Forum: Week 1 – Photo of your favourite sporting moment
Discussion Forum: Week 1 – Photo of your favourite sporting moment
Discussion Forum
Week 2: Your own definition of sport
Active
Competition
Competitive
Competitiveness
Enjoyment
Exciting
Excitement
Fun
Inclusive
Interactive
Mentally demanding
Mentally healthy
Passion
Physical
Physical activity
Physically demanding
Physically healthy
Skills with physical attributes
Social activity
Unites people
Module One Topics
1. Definitions
2. Industry Overview
3. Special Features of Sport
This Week
4. Tools of the Trade
5. Strategic Planning
6. Government Policy
Module One Readings
1. Module One Lecture Slides
2. Chapter 2 – Special Features of Sport (this week)
3. Chapter 3 – Strategic Planning (next week)
4. What is a game? (Suits)
5. Words on play (Suits)
6. Management Tools (Rigby)
7. List of websites – refer Blackboard Module One
https://www.sportaus.gov.au/grants_and_funding/investment_announcements
Play-Sport Continuum
A continuum of physical activities ranging from informal play to formal sport, from E. Snyder (1990), Sport and Fitness Management, Human Kinetics.
INFORMAL INFORMAL SEMI-FORMAL FORMAL
PLAY SPORT SPORT SPORT
Spontaneous Community Recreation Weekly Leagues Professional Sport
Free from constraints Primary School Sport High School Sport Highly regulated
Engaged in voluntarily Participation programs University Sport Formal rules and roles
Terminated at will Come ‘n’ Try Masters Sport External pressures
No competition Fun Runs Regional events Importance of outcome
Running Sports days Training/Routine Increased effort
Jumping Carnivals Winning matters Work-like
Throwing
Splashing
The Sports Industry in Australia
Industry data confirms that the sports industry in
Australia generates $12.8 billion in revenue and
employs 220,000 Australians.
Sport is part of the Australian fabric. 92% of
Australian adults have an interest in sport,
11 million adults and 3 million children
participate in sport each year.
1.8 million Australians volunteer 158 million
hours each year, and nearly 8 million Australians
attend live sport events each year.
Sport contributes 3% to GDP.
The 2030 National Sport Plan is
available at www.sportaus.gov.au
Where is the employment?
 State and National sport
associations/federations
 Professional sport clubs and
leagues
 Private sport/health/golf clubs
and resorts
 Community Recreation and
Amateur Sport Associations
 School and College sport
programs
 University Sport and Academic
programs
 Sport stadia and arenas
 Community Sport and
Recreation Centres
 Aquatic Centres
 Gyms and Fitness Centres
 Sport Participation and Physical
Activity programs
 Sport Events/Competitions
 Sport Marketing/Communication
 Sport Media/Journalism
 Sport Science/Human Movement
 Sport Coaching/Instructing
 Sport Law
 Sport for Development & Peace
 Player Management
 Player Associations (Unions)
 Corporate Sponsorship
 Sport Planning/Consulting
 Sport Apparel
 Sporting Goods Industry
 Sport Engineering
Sport for All
People who work in leisure, recreation and sport have one
common, united focus – they expect sport to be available
and accessible for everyone.
The general population are looking for unique, fun and social
experiences in their leisure time – they turn to recreation and
sport for this experience.
Sport offers unique opportunities that are not available
elsewhere – participation, coaching, officiating, volunteering –
and people also seek enjoyment from watching sport and
belonging to a sports team or club.
Sport for All
Sport therefore has a responsibility to provide opportunities
for all and create a delivery system that accommodates
people at all levels.
This delivery system welcomes people learning sport for the
first time and facilitates their progress to competitive or elite
sport if they have the desire and ability to do so.
The Sport Development Model (next slide) highlights the
different levels of the sport delivery system, and each level
offers opportunity to those who are passionate about sport.
Sport Development Model
Elite
Performance
Participation
Foundation
Regional and State Competitions;
Competitive Leagues; Talent Squads;
Regular Coaching; Emphasis on winning.
Physical Education; Holiday Clinics;
Development Programs (AUSKICK);
Basic skills, positive attitudes.
Mass participation at clubs, schools,
leisure centres; Participation Events;
Non-competitive; Fun, Health, Friendships
National and International Competitions; Olympic
and Paralympic Games; Professional Leagues;
Professional Coaching; Sport Science; Excellence.
Designing Leisure Experiences
The Sport Development Model consists of multiple programs –
junior development programs, competitions, high performance
programs – and it is these programs that need to be designed.
Rossman and Schlatter (2000) referred to programming as the
process of designing leisure experiences. They believed that
designing and delivering leisure, recreation and sport services
was the major function of the leisure service profession – and
the reason why the profession and the organisations exist.
To design and deliver these experiences are why we need
professionals in sport. We will return to this in future modules.
https://www.sportaus.gov.au/participation
VIDEO: https://www.sportaus.gov.au/media-centre/news/new-design-toolkit-helping-bring-aussies-back-to-sport
This toolkit will help sports design
quality participation experiences
and attract and retain more
participants. The information,
resources and templates will assist
sport to develop effective
participation plans and co-design
participant-centred products and
experiences that are informed by
market insights and evidencebased approaches.
Sport is a unique business
The growth and commercialism in sport since the 1980’s
has created the need for professional sport managers.
Smith and Stewart (1999) explored the special features of
sport and declared that “Sport is a business but it is a special
form of business”.
The authors identified ten special features of sport that are
unique to the sports industry and therefore demand that sport
professionals have specific knowledge and qualifications to
perform the roles.
Special Features of Sport
Irrational passions
Sport has a symbolic significance and emotional intensity that is not
found in other businesses. Sport is consumed by strong emotional
attachments that are linked to the past through nostalgia and
tradition. A star player may be appointed coach even though they
are not the best applicant, or a change to club colours will be
challenged by the fans.
Profits or Premierships?
In business we measure success by the size of the profit, but in sport
most fans are focused on winning the premiership.
Designing a level playing field
We want our teams to win but we also want close games and an
even competition, so our sporting competitions introduce rules and
policies to design a level playing field and ‘outcome uncertainty’.
Variable quality
There is enormous variability in the quality of sporting performances
due to many reasons, including weather, injuries and the venue, and
the final result is unpredictable. Most other businesses can
guarantee the quality of their product or service.
Collaboration and cartels
Clubs and teams must collaborate with their rivals – they need each
other to deliver a successful competition and ensure their long term
survival. Most other businesses are not interested in working with
their competitors.
Smith, A. & Stewart, B. (1999) Sports Management: A Guide to Professional Practice, Allen and
Unwin: Sydney
Special Features of Sport
Product and Brand Loyalty
Sport fans (or customers) are very loyal to their club/team/sport and
rarely change, even when they are unhappy with the performance or
result. Most other businesses would lose their customers if the product
or service was poor.
Vicarious Identification
Sport fans choose to identify with their sports teams/clubs and individual
athletes which has a powerful influence on their spending patterns.
Other businesses do not have this and therefore choose to align with
sports brands.
Blind Optimism
Sports fans will despise the opposition but then welcome an opposition
player into the club. The fans of the opposition club will continue to
support their team even if the team has lost this player.
Technology
Most businesses will embrace change and technology but sport will
often resist change.
Fixed supply schedules
Most businesses who have success will increase production and sell
more products to maximise profits. Sport clubs and teams however
have a fixed schedule and memberships are often restricted due to the
size of the stadium.
Smith, A. & Stewart, B. (1999) Sports Management: A Guide to Professional Practice, Allen and
Unwin: Sydney
PLANNING & POLICY
Tools of the trade
If sport is a business then we need to adopt management
tools and practices used by other businesses and apply
them to sport if we are to be successful and sustainable.
The tools include:
 Strategic Planning
 Goal Setting and SMART Objectives
 SWOT Analysis and PESTEL Environmental Analysis
 Risk Analysis, Needs Assessments, Feasibility Studies
 The Marketing Mix (8’Ps)
 Project Management, Event Management, Gantt Charts
Strategic Planning
Strategic planning is:
 a fundamental management skill
 a blueprint for action
 a tool for deciding where to go and how to get there
 about gaining competitive advantage
Strategy is primarily concerned with:
 the scope of an organisation
 a definition of the business the organisation is in now
 and the future business it should be involved in.
Strategy Development
Strategy development is done in three phases:
 Formulation
 Implementation
 Monitoring
Or to describe it another way:
 deciding what we want to do
 instructing those responsible to do it; and
 making sure it has been done
Port Adelaide has unveiled its grand vision for the next five years,
headlined by winning three premierships, having over 100,000
members and eliminating $12 million in debt.
Dubbed Chasing Greatness, the five-year strategic vision was revealed
to members at the club’s Annual General Meeting recently.
 WIN 3 premierships
 100,000 members
 COMMUNITY heart
 COMMERCIAL growth
 RE-DEVELOPED Alberton Precinct, and
 DEBT free
https://www.portadelaidefc.com.au/news/863094/strategic-vision-chasing-greatness
https://www.footballaustralia.com.au/news/football-australia-unveils-ambitious-fifa-womens-world-cup-2023tm
Legacy 23 has five key pillars:
 increasing football participation
 building and upgrading
community facilities
 enhancing tourism and
international engagement
 developing more female leaders
 ensuring that Australia’s senior
women’s national team, the
Westfield Matildas, enter the
tournament as prepared as
possible to compete deep in the
competition.
The Strategic Planning Process
Different models and frameworks for strategic planning exist but
they all focus on the following process:
 Describe the organisation’s mission, vision and fundamental values
 Target potential business arenas and explore each market for
emerging threats and opportunities
 Understand the current and future priorities of targeted customer
segments
 Analyse the company’s strengths and weaknesses relative to
competitors and determine which elements of the value chain the
company should make versus buy
 Identify and evaluate alternative strategies
Rigby, D.K (2015) Management Tools 2015: An Executives Guide, Bain and Company Inc: Boston.
The Strategic Planning Process
 Develop an advantageous business model that will profitably
differentiate the company from its competitors
 Define stakeholder expectations and establish clear and
compelling objectives for the business
 Prepare programs, policies, and plans to implement the strategy
 Establish supportive organisational structures, decision processes,
information and control systems, and hiring and training systems
 Allocate resources to develop critical capabilities
 Plan for and respond to contingencies or environmental changes
 Monitor performance
Rigby, D. (2015) Management Tools 2015: An Executives Guide, Bain and Company Inc: Boston.
Five Step Strategy Model
Smith and Stewart
(1999) refer to the
following five-step
strategy model that will
be explored further.
Smith, A. and Stewart, B
(1999) Sports Management: A
guide to professional practice,
Allen and Unwin: Sydney.
Step One: Strategic Direction
Smith and Stewart (1999) suggest that at the start of the strategic planning
process any sport organisation should ask itself two fundamental questions:
1. Why do we exist?
2. What do we want?
The answers are addressed by the Mission and Vision Statements. Some
organisations combine these two statements into one but they are different and
addressing both questions does assist the planning process.
Mission Statement
A Mission Statement states the organisation’s reason for
existence or it’s purpose.
The mission statement clearly defines the business of the
organisation, what it was set up to achieve, what general
products or services it provides, and for whom it provides
them. It is focused on the here and now.
The mission statement should be concise and does not
contain any measurable outcomes or targets – these are
written later. The mission statement should set the
organisation apart from its competitors.
Vision Statement
A vision is a statement about what your organisation wants
to become – the desired future position of the organisation.
The vision statement suggests that the organisation is
looking ahead, it wants to grow, have more success or
more significant outcomes.
The vision should resonate with all members of the
organisation and help them feel proud, excited and part of
something much bigger than themselves.
Student Exercise
Do you know the mission or vision of your favourite sports team?
“We exist to win premierships and make our community proud”
Common Uses
Mission and Vision Statements are commonly used to:
Internally
 Guide management’s thinking on strategic issues
 Help define performance standards
 Inspire employees to work more productively by providing focus and
common goals
 Guide employee decision making
 Help establish a framework for ethical behaviour
Externally
 Enlist external support
 Create closer linkages and better communication with customers,
suppliers and partners
 Serve as a public relations tool
Rigby, D. (2015) Management Tools 2015: An Executives Guide, Bain & Company Inc: Boston.
Goals and Objectives
Once the Mission and Vision are confirmed the focus is on what can be
achieved in the next 1-5 years – the Goals and SMART Objectives.
Goals (or Aims) outline the key areas of focus that will help the organisation
to achieve its Mission and Vision.
Each Goal then has SMART Objectives that outline the targets to be
reached and the timeframe. It is the Objectives that will be measured.
SMART is an acronym for: Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Relevant and
Timebound. Every objective should be SMART. If the organisation achieves
its SMART Objectives then it achieves its goals, mission and vision.
Goals and Objectives
When writing the Mission, Vision, Goals and SMART Objectives we
move from very broad statements to very specific sentences, otherwise
known as ‘stepwise refinement’.
Mission and Vision
Goals
SMART
Objectives
Let’s explore an example from Cricket Australia:
Mission: To unite and inspire communities through cricket.
Vision:
For cricket to be Australia’s favourite sport, and
a sport for all Australians.
Cricket Australia would have many goals to achieve this Mission and
Vision as outlined in their strategic plan. CA have invested in three
forms of cricket and grown both the men’s and women’s game. They
may decide that they would like to see more Aboriginal Australians
playing the sport which would help to achieve their vision.
This strategic decision requires a Goal and SMART Objectives:
Goal 1
To introduce 10,000 Aboriginal Australians to the
game by Year X.
Objective 1.1
Provide cricket pitches to 20 Aboriginal and remote
communities by Year X.
Objective 1.2
Educate 100 cricket coaches in Aboriginal and
remote communities by Year X.
Objective 1.3
Facilitate 5 coaching sessions and 1 carnival in
20 Aboriginal and remote communities by Year X.
Make sure that the objectives above are SMART!
Goals and Objectives
Smith and Stewart (1999) suggest that the goals and objectives of
most sports are focused on:
1. Participation – increase number
2. Performance – increase ‘success’ (on-field or off-field)
3. Promotion – increase awareness
4. Profit – increase financial returns
Some sport organisations may decide to have a goal for each
function or department – eg junior participation, coaching, high
performance, marketing, finance, people and culture.
Step Two: Strategic Analysis
Smith and Stewart (1999) suggest that once the strategic
direction has been confirmed it is time to complete a strategic
analysis to clarify any internal organisational features or any
external environmental factors that might influence or impact
the achievement of your goals and objectives.
Two tools that we can use for this analysis are:
 SWOT Analysis
 PESTEL Analysis
SWOT Analysis
A SWOT Analysis explores all the internal and external factors that
influence the organisation now and in the immediate future.
SWOT is an acronym for:
 Strengths – internal things that the organisation does well and can
effect
 Weaknesses – internal things that the organisation doesn’t do so
well and can change
 Opportunities – external situations or factors that the organisation
can use to its advantage or take “opportunity” of
 Threats – external factors which are detrimental to the organisation
SWOT Analysis
A SWOT Analysis usually adopts the format below with four quadrants
and four headings. Beneath each heading, list all the relevant aspects
of the business (internal) and the environment it operates in (external).
Strengths (Internal)
Weaknesses (Internal)
Opportunities (External)
Threats (External)
Internal Strengths and Weaknesses
Your internal analysis should cover the following, but is not limited to these
alone:
 products and product range (good and services)
 production capacity
 staff and management skills/knowledge/capabilities
 research and development skills/budget
 market share
 profitability
 level of borrowed funds
External Opportunities and Threats
Your external research should look into these factors:
 competitors – their present position, likely future and reasons for success or
failure
 economics – the state of the economy, interest rates and employment levels
 technology – changes to existing products, methods of distribution and
production
 politics – tax, environment, wages and regulations
 social situation – changes in social behaviour, attitudes, standard of living or
income levels
 health and safety – changes in zoning regulations or environmental standards
Important SWOT tips
 Don’t get bogged down in operational detail unless it is
strategically important and a factor in competitive
advantage or disadvantage.
 E.g. “Our accounting system is so bad we don’t know
who owes us money” would be an operational issue of
strategic importance, but “We use MYOB to do our
accounting” probably isn’t of strategic importance.
 Don’t forget to look at all aspects of the organisation, not
just the sport-recreation issues.
PESTEL Analysis
The PESTEL Analysis expands your SWOT Analysis and
encourages you to think broadly about the external
environment. How do the following factors affect your
organisation?
 Political
 Economic
 Social
 Technological
 Environmental
 Legal
Step Three: Strategic Options
Following the strategic analysis the organisation will have various
options to move forward. The options may include:
 More of the same
 Something new
 A few small changes
 A radical transformation
Two additional tools help to determine the most suitable strategies:
 Gap analysis
 Benchmarking
Gap Analysis
Examines the differences between the organisation’s
current position and it’s desired position.
Takes into consideration the results of SWOT and PESTEL
analysis in terms of the organisation’s stated mission/vision
and its goals/objectives.
The Gap Analysis asks the question:
“What options are there from moving from A to B”
Benchmarking
Benchmarking is comparing your organisation to another
organisation that is performing better than you are and then
trying to achieve that level of performance.
By comparing, studying and measuring other processes and
functions that are of a higher quality you gain some insight
into what you need to focus on.
A fancy way of copying what somebody else is doing.
4 types of Benchmarking
Smith and Stewart (1999) identify four types of benchmarking:
 Internal: Identify the internal performance standards in the same
organisation. Good for large/national/global organisations.
 Competitive: Compare companies in the same markets that have
competing products or services or work processes eg AFL and NRL.
 Industry: Compare companies in the same industry who may have
the same products or services but are not competitors in the same
market eg AFL and EPL.
 Process: This type of benchmarking focuses on excellent work
processes rather than on the business practices of a particular
organisation or industry. Some business functions or processes are
the same regardless of dissimilarities of the industries. For
example, the process of online shopping at Amazon may highlight
key learnings for AFL clubs.
Step Four: Strategic Plan
The analysis has been completed and now the strategic
plan is written. The plan should assist the organisation to
bridge the gap and move forward.
The plan can become very detailed as it attempts to set
the direction for all employees for the next 1-5 years.
Most organisations will publically communicate their
Mission, Vision and Goals, but may choose to keep the
SMART objectives, actions and resources confidential.
There is no exact way to display the required information
but the following table highlights one example.
Step Four: Strategic Plan
Mission: To unite and inspire communities through cricket.
Vision: For cricket to be Australia’s favourite sport, and a sport for all Australians.
Goal 1: To introduce 10,000 Aboriginal Australians to the game by Year X.
Objectives: 1.1 1.2 1.3
Actions:
1.1.1
1.1.2
1.1.3
1.2.1
1.2.2
1.2.3
1.3.1
1.3.2
1.3.3
Budget: $ $ $
Responsibility: X Y Z
Step Four: Strategic Plan
It would not be unusual for the organisation to have 6-8
goals, and each goal has numerous SMART Objectives,
and each objective has its own actions or tactics.
This ‘cascading approach’ is deliberate – it highlights
what needs to be implemented each day and by whom to
achieve the organisation’s mission and vision.
The strategic plan determines who is employed, their roles
and responsibilities, and the budget for the next 12 months.
Step Five: Strategic Evaluation
Strategic Plans are continually reviewed and evaluated to
ensure the organisation is on track.
If your SMART Objectives are well written then you have
already outlined targets for the next twelve months.
These targets are often referred to as Key Performance
Indicators (KPIs) and they are the key measures that need
to be achieved if the organisation is to be successful.
It is the KPIs that the CEO and Senior Managers will be
checking each week to make sure progress has been made.
Strategy in Sport
Sport organisations need to adopt strategy and strategic
planning like any other business:
 It provides a sense of direction and can unite key
stakeholders – employees, members, commercial partners
 It highlights priorities and funding commitments for the
next 1-5 years
 It demonstrates to Government and other investors that
your sport is well organised, united and thinking ahead.
 It could provide your sport with a competitive advantage
over other sports and forms of leisure or entertainment.
Government Funding
The annual budget cycle adopted by Federal and State
Government is critical to sport organisations if they are to
secure funding for programs, operations, events and facilities.
The strategic plan demonstrates to Governments that the
sport is worthy of future investment. The strategic plan
would be required as part of the funding application.
Sports aligned to the Summer and Winter Olympics operate
on a four-year cycle and are seeking funding to prepare their
athletes for the next Olympic Games.
Government Policy
Federal and State Governments outline their funding policies
in advance and work closely with sport organisations to develop
strategic plans, feasibility studies and funding needs.
Government funding is usually focused on outcomes and
priorities that are considered important by the Government of
the day. Recent examples have included physical activity for
all, inclusion in sport and protecting the integrity of sport.
A good strategic plan would normally address current policies
outlined by Government and highlight how the sport will meet
these challenges, which helps to justify the importance of sport
in the community and the Government’s decision to invest.
Government Policy
Other examples of Government Policy related to sport:
 Adherence to the WADA (Anti-Doping) Code
 Child Protection and Working with Children
 Increased participation for women and girls
 Eliminating racism and other forms of discrimination
 Tackling binge-drinking in sport
 Privacy for members of sport organisations
 Sport Diplomacy to assist with trade and investment
References
Huizinga, J. (1949). Homo Ludens: A Study of the Play Element in Culture,
Routledge & Kegan Paul: London.
Rigby, D. (2015). Management Tools 2015: An Executives Guide, Bain &
Company Inc: Boston.
Rossman, J. and Schlatter, B. (2000). Recreation Programming: Designing
Leisure Experiences, Sagamore Publishing: USA.
Smith, A. and Stewart. B. (1999). Sports Management: A Guide to
Professional Practice, Allen and Unwin: Sydney.
Suits, B. (1973). “The Elements of Sport,” in The Philosophy of Sport: A
Collection of Original Essays, ed. Robert G. Osterhoudt, Charles C Thomas
Publishers, p. 48-64.

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