JIT Basics (SMED, TPM, Standards) Operations management Taxation Law Austroads Guide to Project Evaluation Assessment Criteria P…

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EG7322 Lean Engineering
Session 8: JIT Basics (SMED, TPM, Standards)
Marina Marinelli
MEng MSc PhD FHEA
m.marinelli@leicester.ac.uk
Strut to
arm
28 sec
Strut
/arm to
base
18 sec
Strut/
arm/base
to cap
14 sec
Add
bottom
clip
14 sec
Inspect
bot 8 sec 4 sec
Side to
base
Side/b/l 26 sec
to cap
10 sec
Add top
clip
10 sec
Side/
base to
leg
24 sec
4 sec
Inspect
top 8 sec
At SLMS, the assembly operation consists of 12
distinct operations done by 4 operators in each shift.
60 sec
50
40
30
20
10

Strut to
arm
28 sec
Side to
base
26 sec Side/b/l
to cap
10 sec
Strut
/arm to
base
18 sec
Strut/
arm/base
to cap
14 sec
Add
bottom
clip
14 sec
4 sec
4 sec
Inspect
top 8 sec
Inspect
bot 8 sec
Operator Balance Chart- Current State

Side/  maintain the flow of the operatio
base to
leg
24 sec
Add top
clip
10 sec
Operator 1
46 sec
Operator 2
50 sec
Operator 3
38 sec
Operator 4
34 sec
Determine the number of operators needed by dividing total product cycle time by takt
time. Operators needed = 168 / 60 = 2.8
Takt time
Line balancing
move the elements around on the chart
60 sec
50
40
30
20
10

Strut to
arm
28 sec
Strut/
arm/base
to cap
14 sec
4 sec
Inspect
bot 8 sec
The ideal situation is to have eve
operator working at takt time
Side/b/l
to cap
10 sec
Strut
/arm to
base
18 sec
Add
bottom
clip
14 sec
4 sec
Inspect
top 8 sec
Side/
base to
leg
24 sec
Side to
base
26 sec
Add top
clip
10 sec
Operator 1
60 sec
Operator 2
60 sec
Operator 3
48 sec
Line balancing
Pieces/day = 230,400 (annual
volume) /240 days = 960 pieces
Machine Capacity Balance
Machine Capacity Balance
Pieces/day = 230,400 (annual
volume) /240 days = 960 pieces
Machine Capacity Balance
Pieces/day = 230,400 (annual
volume) /240 days = 960 pieces
For Tool #S98-010 Run seconds/day = 960 pieces/day x 23 second cycle time
= 22,080 sec = 368 min
For Tool #S98-008 … 960×34 = 32640 sec = 544 min
For Tool #S98-014 … 960×23 = 22,080sec = 368 min
Changeover time for mold: 2 hrs = 120 min
x3 times
Changeover time for colour: 15 min x6 times
S98‐008
Run time
544 min
S98‐010 run
time 368 min
120 min T/C
120 min T/C
S98‐014 run
time 368 min
120 min T/C
Top base
Top cap
Bottom cap
Continuous overtime requir
Press no1
90 min CL/T
1440
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
Available time
3*8*60=1,440 min
1440*0.9=1,296
Machine Capacity Balance ChartCurrent State
• A process for changing over production equipment from one part number to
another in as little time as possible. SMED refers to the target of reducing
changeover times to a single digit, or less than 10 minutes.
• A die is a piece of hard metal used to shape sheet metal.
• Stamping machines create desired shapes out of sheet metal “blankets” by bringing
matched lower and upper dies together under thousands of pounds of pressure.

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Single Minute Exchange of Die (SMED)
Machine Capacity



Total Productive Maintenance
TPM: A set of techniques to ensure that every machine in a production
process always is able to perform its required tasks.
It seeks total productivity of equipment by focusing on all of the six major
losses that plague equipment:
 downtime
 changeover time
 minor stops
 speed losses
1. Downtime  Equipment breakdowns
2. Change over time  Setup and adjustment delays (e.g., because of die changes in
stamping presses or injection molding machines)
3. Minor stops
 Idling and minor stoppages (the machine is being run but no
product is processed)
 Reduced speed (the actual machine speed is less than the
design speed)
4. Speed losses
5. Scrap
6. Rework
 Process defects that require repair
 scrap
 rework
Total Productive Maintenance
TPM: A set of techniques to ensure that every machine in a production
process always is able to perform its required tasks.
It seeks total productivity of equipment by focusing on all of the six major
losses that plague equipment:
 downtime
 changeover time
 minor stops
 speed losses
 scrap
 rework
Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE)
Availability rate Performance rate Quality rate
If Availability is 90%, Performance is 95% and Quality is 99%
OEE=0.90 x 0.95 x 0.99 = 84.6%
Availability Rate x Performance Rate x Quality Rate = OEE
The approach is termed total because
First, it requires the total participation of all employees, not only
maintenance personnel but line managers, manufacturing engineers, quality
experts, and operators.
Second, it seeks total productivity of equipment by focusing on all of the six
major losses that plague equipment: downtime, changeover time, minor
stops, speed losses, scrap, and rework.
Total Productive Maintenance
Preventive maintenance: equipment servicing approach
considered a precursor to TPM that is based on regularly scheduled
checking and overhauling by maintenance personnel to decrease
breakdowns and increase equipment life.
Unlike traditional preventive maintenance, which relies
on maintenance personnel, TPM involves operators in
routine maintenance, improvement projects, and simple
repairs. For example, operators perform daily activities
such as lubricating, cleaning, tightening, and inspecting
equipment.
1
10
30
100s
Breakdown
(function loss)
Minor stoppage
(function reduction)
Minor failures
(no function reduction)
Hidden failures
(no function reduction)
Loose
Nuts and bolts
Vibration causes
bearing deterioration
Motor Overheating
Motor burns out
Listen and watch for minor anomalies
and take action before breakdown
Total Productive Maintenance
Standards
Why are they important in the lean system?
Standards make abnormalities immediately
obvious so that corrective actions can be taken.
What makes an effective standard?
A good standard is
 simple
 clear
 visual
Standard: A clear image of a desired condition
The bedrock of production is standards: what is supposed to happen.
The bedrock of excellence is adherence to standards
Visual Management
Lean is about making problems visible.
You can’t fix what you can’t see.
Four levels of visual management in order of increasing power
LEVEL 1—TELLS ONLY
LEVEL 2—SOMETHING CHANGES, WHICH GETS
YOUR ATTENTION
LEVEL 3—ORGANIZES BEHAVIOR
LEVEL 4—THE DEFECT IS IMPOSSIBLE
Step 1: Develop a deep grasp of our process and possible failure modes.
Step 2: Install devices and/or practices that make them impossible.
The placement in plain view of all tools, parts, production activities, and indicators
of production system performance, so the status of the system can be
understood at a glance by everyone involved.
Α standard can be
◾A one‐page standardised work chart
◾A painted silhouette on a wall showing what jigs and tools belong there
◾A delivery schedule board on a receiving dock showing what deliveries are
expected and which ones have arrived on time
◾A visual display showing the department’s capacity, throughput and cycle time
targets, current project load, and what phase each project is in, and what the
main problems are.
Key point: It’s easy to see what should be happening.
Consider a quality standard for paint finish.
Here are three types of standards and their relative power:
◾Written description in the supervisor’s desk drawer: low power
◾Picture posted in the workplace: higher power
◾Actual sample of both good and bad conditions posted at the point of use:
highest power
Visual Management
• Draw a happy pig
DRAW A HAPPY PIG!
• 0 PICK UP YOUR PEN (1sec)
• 1 Draw a letter M at the top left intersection. Bottom center of M touches the intersection (3 sec)
• 2 Draw the letter W at the bottom left intersection. Top center of W touches the intersection (3 sec)
• 3 Draw the letter W at the bottom right intersection. Top center of W touches the intersection (3 sec)
• 4 Draw an arc from the letter M to the top right intersection (2 sec)
• 5 Draw another arc from the top right intersection to the bottom right W (4 sec)
• 6 Draw an arc between the two bottom Ws (2 sec)
• 7 Draw a circle in the center left box (3 sec)
• 8 Draw an arc from the letter M to the tangent of the circle ( 2 sec)
• 9 Draw an arc from the left W to the tangent of the circle ( 2 sec)
• 10 Draw an arc for the eye. Half way between M and circle (2 sec)
• 11 Draw an arc for the mouth. Half way between W and circle. Must be a happy pig! (2 sec)
• 12 Draw the letter e near the top of arc on the right (3 sec)
• 13 Draw two dots in the middle of the circle for the pigs nose (3 sec)
• 14 Put your pen down (1 sec)
Standardised work
Standard: A clear image of a desired condition
Standardised work
1 Draw a letter M at the top left intersection. Bottom
center of M touches the intersection
2 Draw the letter W at the bottom left intersection.
Top center of W touches the intersection
Draw an arc from the letter M to the top right intersection
• The process tells the team member what to do, when to do it, and in what order.
• Standardised work is:
Standardised work
• The most effective combination of workers, materials, and machines for
the sake of making high‐quality products cheaply, quickly, and safely.
• Safest, easiest and most effective way of doing the job that we currently
know.
• A process is simply a set of steps or actions with a clearly defined goal.
• A tool for developing, confirming, and improving our processes
Standardised work
1. There is a single best way (and the engineers will find it).
2. Workers are not involved in designing the work or making improvements.
3. Standards rarely change (and only the experts can change them)
 There is no one best way to do the work.
 Workers should design the work.
 The purpose of standardised work is to provide a basis for improvement.
Requires establishing precise procedures, highly specified as to the content,
the sequence, the timing and the outcome for each operator’s work in a
production process.
Standardised work, comprises:
◾Work content
◾Timing
◾Sequence
 Expected outcome
◾Embedded tests that signal OK/Not OK
Time measurement entails breaking a process into its elements and
measuring the instant each element starts and stops.
Steps:
Standardised work
1. Become familiar with the process area and its surroundings.
2. Identify the work elements and their sequence.
3. Measure total cycle time (at least 10 times).
4. Measure the time for each work element (at least 10 times).
5. Identify and measure irregular work (e.g., clearing blockages).
A work element is the minimum action or group of actions required to
advance a process.
For example, picking up a bolt is an action but does not advance the
process. Picking up a bolt and installing it on a work piece is a group of
actions, which advances the process.
Work content
Work element sheet
Work element sheets are one‐pagers that define
◾Actions making up the job element
◾Rationale
◾Pictures and photos highlighting key points to perform the job safely with utmost
quality and efficiency
◾Revision record
Used to train new
operators
Standardised Work Combination Table
Shows the combination of manual work time, walk time, and machine processing time
for each operator in a production sequence.
Standardised work chart
Shows operator movement
and material location in
relation to the machine
and overall process layout.
Standardized work charts often are displayed at workstations as a tool for visual
management and kaizen.
They are continuously reviewed and updated as the condition of the worksite changes
or improves.
Thank you

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