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REFERENCINGHANDBOOKHARVARDUWTSD: Library and Learning ResourcesEllie Downes and Alison EvansAcademic Liaison LibrariansREFERENCING HANDBOOK: HARVARD1.WelcomeWelcome to the 1st edi�on of the University of Wales Trinity Saint David’s ReferencingHandbooks, created as part of a collabora�ve effort between the Library and Learning Resources(LLR), the Academic Office and academic staff across the University.Referencing correctly is an important skill in academia, and there is plenty of conflic�ng orout-of-date informa�on out there so we’ve created consistent guidance for UWTSD students.Referencing Handbooks are available for the four standards used at UWTSD and further supportand guidance is available via the LLR from your Academic Liaison Librarian.We would like to thank the academic staff involved for their �me and inputWe hope that these will help improve your skills and confidence and hope this resource will be auseful guide through the some�mes confusing world of referencing.We’d be happy to receive feedback on these guides just contact [email protected] with anysugges�ons.Ellie DownesAcademic Liaison LibrarianREFERENCING HANDBOOK: HARVARD2.ContentsIntroduc�on……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..3What is referencing? …………………………………………………………………………………………………………3How do I use this handbook? ……………………………………………………………………………………………..3Avoiding plagiarism …………………………………………………………………………………………………………..4Referencing �ps………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..4Referencing so�ware…………………………………………………………………………………………………………4Help and support………………………………………………………………………………………………………………4Harvard Referencing: The Basics …………………………………………………………………………………………51. In-text cita�ons: ……………………………………………………………………………………………………52. A reference list………………………………………………………………………………………………………5How do I quote, paraphrase and summarise in my work?………………………………………………………5Quota�ons……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….5Long quota�on – more than 30 words or 2 lines …………………………………………………………..5Short quota�on – up to 30 words or 2 lines………………………………………………………………….6Paraphrasing and summarising …………………………………………………………………………………..7How do I reference specific types of resources? ……………………………………………………………………81. Books and e-books ……………………………………………………………………………………………….82. Journal and newspaper ar�cles…………………………………………………………………………….103. Internet……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..114. Conferences……………………………………………………………………………………………………….125. Unpublished informa�on……………………………………………………………………………………..136. Reports and guidelines ………………………………………………………………………………………..147. Legal and government publica�ons……………………………………………………………………….158. Scien�fic and technical informa�on ………………………………………………………………………189. Reviews……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..2010. Visual materials …………………………………………………………………………………………………2111. Live performances ……………………………………………………………………………………………..2212. Film and television……………………………………………………………………………………………..2313. Personal Communica�ons…………………………………………………………………………………..2414. Manuscripts………………………………………………………………………………………………………25Introduc�onWhat is referencing?There are four recommended referencing styles in use at the University of Wales Trinity SaintDavid:You can find out which referencing standard you should be using by looking in your ProgrammeHandbook. All of the referencing handbooks are available in the Student Guides sec�on of MyDayand at www.uwtsd.ac.uk/library/• APA (American Psychological Associa�on)• Harvard• IEEE (Ins�tute of Electronics and Electronics Engineers)• MHRA (Modern Humani�es Research Associa�on)• Demonstrate the breadth of research you have undertaken• Add academic credibility to your arguments• Enable readers to find the sources you have used in your work• Acknowledge the ideas and work of others• Avoid accidental plagiarism.When producing an academic assignment, you will be expected to acknowledge other people’swork by referencing them in a recognised and consistent format. You will also need to providedetails of the resources you have read for your assignment. There are a number of reasons whythis is necessary:How do I use this handbook?The handbook will help you recognise the need for accurate referencing and support you in thedeveloping your referencing skills.The handbook provides examples of how to produce in-text cita�ons and references from someof the most widely used sources you may encounter over the course of your studies.The handbook is not exhaus�ve and addi�onal examples and guidance can be found in:Which you can find in all UWTSD libraries.Pears, R. and Shields, G. (2016) Cite them right: the essental referencing guide. 10th rev. edn.Basingstoke: Palgrave.An example of how the reference shouldappear in your text will be shown in thisboxAn example of how the reference shouldappear in your reference list or bibliographywill be shown in this boxREFERENCING HANDBOOK: HARVARD3.Avoiding plagiarismReferencing �psHelp and supportProper referencing also means you avoid plagiarism, passing off someone else’s work as yourown. Plagiarism can be deliberate or accidental; without accurate referencing it’s possible toaccidentally plagiarise someone else’s work.The University’s full defini�on of plagiarism can be found within the University regula�ons:h�p://www.uwtsd.ac.uk/academic-office/university-regula�ons-student-guide/During your first year you’ll receive an in-class session on referencing and you’ll be able to accessregular workshops and drop-ins throughout the academic year as part of our InfoSkillsprogramme, full details will be available on the Student Events calendar accessible via MyDayh�p://uwtsd.ac.uk/library/infoskills/. Connect with us @UWTSDLib, on Facebook, Twi�er andInstagram for updates on top �ps.You have a dedicated Academic Liaison Librarian for your Faculty whose role is to support youthroughout your course. You can find out who your Academic Liaison Librarian is and book anappointment here: www.uwtsd.ac.uk/library/contact-us/library-staff/ or by popping into yournearest UWTSD library.Support for referencing is also available from Student Services and study skills drop-ins areavailable across the campuses.Students at Partner Ins�tu�ons should check with the library at their home ins�tu�on to find outwhich standard they should be using and where to get support.Make sure that you know which referencing style your programme uses before youbeginthis will be in your programme handbookKeep a record of the sources you read as you go alongBe consistent in the records you keep and in the way you referenceBuild in enough �me to check you referencingIf in doubt, put yourself in the shoes of the reader and ask if you could easily find thesource from your referencingIf in doubt, seek clarifica�on or ask for help••••••REFERENCING HANDBOOK: HARVARD4.The Library provides access to Refworks, an online programme that helps you to record yoursources in one place and support you in referencing them and can be access via the librarywebsite, using your UWTSD login: h�p://uwtsd.ac.uk/library/online-library/refworks/Referencing So�wareHarvard Referencing: The BasicsThe Harvard referencing style consists of:REFERENCING HANDBOOK: HARVARD5.These are used when referring to a source of informa�on within the text of yourassignment to show where it came from. They are abbreviated details of the source youare referring to and generally consist of the author’s / editor’s family name, year ofpublica�on and, if required, page numbers e.g. (Pears and Shields, 2016, p. 6). You donot need to include the author’s surname in the in-text cita�on if it is referred to withinthe body of your work e.g. According to Pears and Shields (2006, p.6). This would justbe unnecessary repe��on!In-text cita�onsA reference list:The purpose of the in-text cita�on is to refer you to the full details of the publica�onwithin a full reference list or bibliography at the end of your work. Full publica�ondetails of the cita�on should be found in the reference list at the end of yourassignment. This contains the full bibliographical record of the references cited in yourtext e.g.Pears, R. and Shields, G. (2016) Cite them right: the essental referencing guide. 10th rev.edn. Basingstoke: Palgrave.It should enable any reader to locate your original source. A reference list is arranged inalphabe�cal order by the author’s family name or, if there is no author, by �tle. Abibliography can also some�mes be requested by your tutor. A bibliography is a list ofall the sources you have read for your assignment, whether or not you have cited themin your text and therefore more exhaus�ve than a reference list. If you’re not surewhich is required, ask your lecturer.How do I quote, paraphrase and summarise in my work?A quota�on means that you take the exact wording as used by another author and insert it inyour work. Direct quota�ons should be used sparingly and only when they are relevant to theargument you are making in your work.REFERENCING HANDBOOK: HARVARD6.Quota�onsFormat:• enter as a separate paragraph• indent the paragraph• quota�on marks are not required• follow with the in-text cita�onExample:Hardy’s development of plot and character must be seen in the broader context of the lossof faith in late Victorian society. As Dunmore comments:A central tension in Hardy’s fic�on is that between fully realized human beings, with alltheir poten�al for individual freedom of choice and ac�on, and the apparently relentlessopera�on of chance, indeed fate, which negates these freedoms. His fic�on undoubtedlyreflects late Victorian pessimism, an a�empt to capture and convey the spirit of individualsbefore it is swept away by the �des of an indifferent universe (Dunmore, 2017, pp. 35-36).Long quota�on – more than 30 words or 2 linesFormat:• include in the body of the text• enclose in double quota�on marks; “example”• follow with the author’s surname, year of publica�on and page number / URL enclosed(in round brackets)Example:Hardy’s characters are not simple types. They are “fully realized human beings, with alltheir poten�al for individual freedom of choice and ac�on” (Dunmore, 2017, p. 35).Short quota�on – up to 30 words or 2 linesHow do I quote, paraphrase and summarise in my work?Paraphrasing is when you take some-one else’s idea and put it into your own words. Summarisingis when you provide a brief overview of some-one else’s idea. You would only need to provide apage number if you are referring to a very specific area or part of the text. You will need to useyour judgment as to whether this is necessary. Put yourself in the shoes of the reader: are youreferring to a whole work or concept or a very small part of it.Paraphrasing and summarisingExample:Dunmore (2017) notes that Hardy presents the reader with rounded characters capable ofac�ng with autonomy, but that these are placed in a context in which their choices areseverely constrained by the opera�on of chance and fate. This she ascribes to theintellectual environment in which he wrote – in par�cular, the pessimis�c spiritual contextof late Victorian England.REFERENCING HANDBOOK: HARVARD7.How do I reference specific types of resources?1. Books and e-books1.1 Book with two or three authorsMost references to books should adhere to the following general format. Elements may veryslightly. Specific examples are provided.As print and electronic books are virtually iden�cal, there is no need to indicate whether or not itis electronic unless the electronic version is not an iden�cal version of a print publica�on.In this case you would use the �tle rather than the author. When lis�ng in the reference listand/or bibliography you would list it alphabe�cally but by its �tle.In-text cita�on: Reference list / Bibliography:(Author’s surname, year of publica�on,page number)(Smith, 2016, p.5) Smith, E. (2016) How to improve yourresearch project. 2nd Ed. Plymouth: KilnPress.(Phillips and Renton, 2012, p. 54) Phillips, E.O. and Renton, P. (2012) Teachingmathematcs today. Reading: Canalside Press.1.2 Book with four or more authors(Morton et al. 2014, p. 37) Morton, A.C. et al. (2014) Walking andlearning. Swansea: Sandpaper Press.1.3 Chapter within an edited book(Hardy, 2015, p. 53) Hardy, P.T. (2015) ‘Outdoor play and how itcan help learning’, in Walker, E. (ed.) A newapproach to teaching in the primary school.London: Todcaster and Frome.1.4 Book without an author or editor(How to make an impact, 2009, p. 1) How to make an impact (2009) London:Avery and Perch.• Author’s surname and first ini�al• Publica�on year in brackets• Title in italics• Edi�on (if relevant)• Place of publica�on: PublisherREFERENCING HANDBOOK: HARVARD8.In this case, the name of the Organisa�on is treated as the author.This is a piece of work that has been referred to in something you have read. Where possible,avoid secondary cita�ons, and access the original work.Simply label them a and b!In-text cita�on: Reference list / Bibliography:How do I reference specific types of resources?1.7 Book with an organisa�on as author(Organisa�on for Research into PrimaryEduca�on, 2017, p. 21)Organisa�on for Research into PrimaryEduca�on. (2017) Learning today. S�rling:McPhee and Jones.1.8 Mul�ple works by the same authorDifferent years:(McNamara, 2012, p.53)(McNamara, 2017, p.20)Different years:McNamara, B.M. (2012) Educaton for life.Maidenhead: Riverstory.McNamara, B.M. (2017) Lifelong learning.Maidenhead: Riverstory.Same year:(Phelps, 2016a, p. 25)(Phelps, 2016b, p.19)Same year:Phelps, P.J. (2016a) Healthy learning.Edinburgh: Castle Books.Phelps, P.J. (2016b) Nutri�on in the earlyyears. Edinburgh: Castle Books.1.9 Edi�onsAccording to O’Brien (2016, pp. 15-17)siblings can have a big impact on learning.orSiblings can have a big impact on learning(O’Brien, 2016, pp. 15-17)O’Brien, T.M. (2016) The impact of familieson learning. 3rd edn. Dublin: BlackwaterBooks.1.10 Secondary cita�onBarne� (2013, quoted in Morton, 2016, p.17) describes “the importance of mee�ngspecial needs in the early years”.orBarne�’s demonstra�on of the importanceof mee�ng special needs in the early years(2013, cited in Morton, 2016, p. 17) isinteres�ng.Morton, D.C. (2016) Learning in the earlyyears. Exeter: Jones & Bart.Note:If you have not read the primary source, donot include it in your reference list – you mayonly cite it in your text.REFERENCING HANDBOOK: HARVARD9.In-text cita�on: Reference list / Bibliography:How do I reference specific types of resources?(Author’s surname, year ofpublica�on, page number)(Price, 2014, p. 157) Price, S. (2014) ‘Planning for change’, Leadership andBusiness Planning, 15(3), pp. 154-166.orPrice, S. (2014) ‘Planning for change’, Leadership andBusiness Planning, 15(3), pp. 154-166.DOI: 10.1080/034845691.2016.1056235Print:• Author’s surname and first ini�al• Publica�on year in round brackets• Ar�cle �tle enclosed in single quota�on marks• Journal �tle in italics• Volume, issue/part• Page number range of whole ar�cleElectronic:The above plus• Accessed date• DOI (Digital Object Iden�fier) or URL if no DOI is available.2.1 Whole newspaper(The Guardian, 2017) The Guardian (2017) 5th June.2.2 Newspaper ar�cle
(Jones, 2016)
Jones, P.J. (2016) ‘STEM subjects win more funding’, TheTimes, 4th May, p. 7.
2.3 Electronic newspaper ar�cle not available in print(Fox, 2016) Fox, I.M. (2016) ‘New report cri�cises lack of businessleadership’, The Courier, 9th January. Available at:h�p://www.thecourier.com/world/jan/16/report-IBCC(Accessed 12th January 2016).REFERENCING HANDBOOK: HARVARD10.2. Journal and newspaper ar�clesMost references to journal and newspaper ar�cles should adhere to the following general format.Elements may very slightly. Specific examples are provided.In-text cita�on: Reference list / Bibliography:How do I reference specific types of resources?(Author’s surname / organisa�on,year of publica�on)• Author’s surname and first ini�al• Publica�on year in round brackets• Website �tle in italics• Enclose medium [in square brackets]• Available at: URL• (Accessed: date)3.1 Website with one authorMcCormack (2016) was a usefulsource of informa�on.McCormack, E.F. (2016) Dog breed characteristcs.Available at: h�p://www.dogbreedchar.co.uk/(Accessed: 19th March 2017).3.2 Website with an organisa�on as authorPets can have a beneficial effect onhealth (Na�onal Health Service,2015).Na�onal Health Service (2015) Pets and Health.Available at: h�p://www.nhs.uk/Petsandhealth(Accessed: 30th March 2017).3.5 FacebookParks are s�ll used today for manydifferent purposes (Parks Today,2017).Parks Today (2017) [Facebook] 10 June. Available at:h�ps://www.facebook.com/parks (Accessed: 15 June2017).3.3 Blog or vlogTom Webster (2016) described theimpact that the arrival of spring canhave.Webster, T.G. (2016) ‘Spring in step’, Tom Webstertoday [blog]. 5 April. Available at:h�p://www.inet.co.uk/blogs/twebster2day/ (Accessed:12 November 2016).3.4 Video / film on a sharing website e.g. YouTubeThe social effect is immediately felt(Collins, 2015).Collins, A.B. (2015) Peer experiment: Art Collins .Available at:h�ps://www.youtube.com/watch?x=tepJtl5We(Accessed: 21 June 2017).REFERENCING HANDBOOK: HARVARD11.3. InternetMost references to the internet should adhere to the following general format. Elements to beincluded will vary, depending on the type of informa�on you are referencing. See the sec�on onbooks (1) to find examples of how to reference e-Books, the sec�on on journals (2) for referencesto ar�cles found on the internet, the sec�on on film (14) for references to film etc.Day of post is required when ci�ng Facebook, Twi�er and other social mediaIn-text cita�on: Reference list / Bibliography:How do I reference specific types of resources?(Author’s / editors surname, year ofpublica�on, page number ifrequried)Note:If only available online:• Available at: URL• (Accessed: date) followed by .• or DOI• Author’s surname followed by ,• First ini�al followed by .• Publica�on year in round brackets• Title of paper enclosed in ‘ ’ followed by ,• Title of conference in italics followed by .• Loca�on and date of conference followed by .• Place of publica�on followed by :• Publisher followed by .• Page number if required followed by .4.1 Full conference proceedingsThe conference was a celebra�on ofsmall business enterprise (Ferguson,2016).Ferguson, J.P. (ed.) (2016) ‘Small business success’,5th SBE natonal conference. University of Kent,Canterbury, 12-15th May. Dudley: Small BusinessEnterprise.4.2 Individual conference paper published in a journalDavies (2016) showed how toembed an understanding of changemanagement into leadershiptraining.Davies, K. (2016) ‘Leadership and change management’(from the Proceedings of the 5th na�onal conferenceon small business success, University of Kent,Canterbury, 12-15th May 2016). Small BusinessQuarterly, 4(3), pp. 30-43.4.2 Individual conference paper published on the internetLewis (2016) emphasised theimportance of small businesscorporate culture.Lewis, K. (2016) ‘Corporate culture and the confidenceto expand’, Proceedings of the 5th natonal conferenceon small business success. University of Kent,Canterbury, 12-15th May. Available at:h�p://www.doc.ac.uk/sites/SBE.presenta�ons.pdf(Accessed: 10 June 2016).REFERENCING HANDBOOK: HARVARD12.4. ConferencesMost references to conferences should adhere to the following general format. Elements mayvery slightly. Specific examples are provided.In-text cita�on: Reference list / Bibliography:How do I reference specific types of resources?• Author’s surname / organisa�on• Year of publica�on• enclose cita�on (in round brackets)• Author’s surname or organisa�on followed by ,• Ini�als followed by .• Publica�on year (in round brackets)• Title of report in italics followed by .• Internal report – include name of ins�tu�on• Unpublished followed by .• Author’s surname followed by ,• Ini�als followed by .• Year of submission (in round brackets)• Title in italics followed by .• Unpublished PhD thesis followed by .• degree awarding body followed by .5.1 Internal report• Anonymised agency• Year of publica�on• enclose cita�on (in round brackets)• Anonymised agency [in square brackets]• Publica�on year (in round brackets)• Title in italics; anonymised part [square brackets]followed by ,• Place of publica�on followed by :• Anonymised producer [in square brackets] .Recent research has shown acorrela�on between a popular socialmedia presence and increased sales(Sloane, 2016, p. 15).Sloane, D.E. (2016) Social media and marketng in theentertainment industry. Unpublished PhD thesis.University of Birmingham.5.2 Confiden�al reportREFERENCING HANDBOOK: HARVARD13.5. Unpublished informa�onMost references not in the public domain should adhere to the following general formats. Ensurethat you have permission before using unpublished material in your work.Any confiden�al report needs to be anonymised appropriately• Anonymised agency• Year of publica�on• enclose cita�on (in round brackets)5.3 ThesisNoteIf accessed online, replace loca�onand publisher with:Available at: URL. (Accessed: date)followed by .NoteIf accessed online, replace loca�onand publisher with:Available at: URL. (Accessed: date)followed by .In-text cita�on: Reference list / Bibliography:How do I reference specific types of resources?• Author’s surname / organisa�on• Year of publica�on• enclose cita�on (in round brackets)• Author’s surname or organisa�on followed by ,• Ini�als followed by .• Publica�on year (in round brackets)• Title of report in italics followed by .• Place of publica�on followed by :• Name of publisher followed by .Rates vary considerably betweenboroughs (Phelps, 2016).Phelps, P.W. (2016) A study of business rates inLondon. London: Crabtree Centre for Research.6.1 Research reportProfits increased each quarter(Edison and Toms Ltd, 2016).Edison and Toms Ltd. (2016) Annual report 2016.Available at:h�p://www.annualrep2014edLtd/downloads/PDF/(Accessed: 5 January 2017).6.2 Annual company reportThe latest reports highlights thesedispari�es (Tiptel, 2015).Tiptel (2015) Women’s Apparel UK. Available at:h�p://www.�ptel.com/downloads/pdf(Accessed: 9 June 2016).6.3 Market research reports from a databaseThe guidelines outline theprocedures to be followed in thissitua�on (Hove Hospital, 2015).Hove Hospital (2015) Emergency interventonprocedures. Available at:h�p://www.hh.nhs.uk/health/guidelines/emerg(Accessed: 5 November 2016).6.4 Online guidelinesREFERENCING HANDBOOK: HARVARD14.6. Reports and guidelinesMost references to reports and guidelines should adhere to the following general format.Elements may very slightly. Specific examples are provided.In-text cita�on (Act of Parliament): Reference list / Bibliography (Act of Parliament):How do I reference specific types of resources?• Title of act in italics• Enclose cita�on (in round brackets)• Title of act in italics. Include year and chapterfollowed by .• Available at: URL• (Accessed: date) followed by .Government legisla�on nowreinforces this approach (EnhancedUrban Air Quality Act 2017)Enhanced Urban Air Quality Act 2017, c. 2. Available at:h�p://www.legisla�on.gov.uk/ukpga/2017/2/contents/enacted(Accessed: 14 March).Note:Include country informa�on (in round brackets) only ifyou are referencing more than one country’s legisla�on7.1 Act of Parliament (Statute)Name / �tle in italics. Include year. • Name / �tle in italics. Include year.• SI year and number (in round brackets) followed by ,• Available at: URL• (Accessed: date) followed by .This update was clearly shown in theEndangered Fish Protecton Council(Consttuton) (Amendment) Order2016.Endangered Fish Protecton Council (Consttuton)(Amendment) Order 2016 (SI 2016/ 1322). Availableat: h�p://www.legisla�on.gov.uk/uksi/2016/1322/contents/made (Accessed: 12 November 2016).7.2 Statutory Instrument (SI)REFERENCING HANDBOOK: HARVARD15.7. Legal and government publica�onsThe following examples of legal publica�ons are given in author-date (Harvard) format. This mayvary from referencing systems, such as the Oxford Standard for the Cita�on of Legal Authori�es(OSCOLA), which are used in many UK law schools.How do I reference specific types of resources?In-text cita�on• Department• Year of publica�on• Enclose cita�on (in round brackets)Note: If accessed online, replaceloca�on and publisher with• Available at: URL• (Accessed: date) followed by .Reference list / Bibliography• Department• Year of publica�on (in round brackets)• Title of report / paper in italics• Command paper number (in round brackets)• Place of publica�on followed by :• Publisher name followed by.New proposals on the long termcare of the elderly are beingconsidered (Department of Health,2017).Department of Health (2017) Secure and FairProvision of Long Term Social Care for the Elderly (Cm6702). Available at:h�ps://www.gov.uk/government/publica�ons/secure-long-term-social-care-report-20157(Accessed: 17 May 2017).7.3 Command Paper (including Green and White papers)• Title in italics. Include year.• Enclose cita�on (in round brackets)• �tle of Assembly Measure / SI in italics. Include year• enclose cita�on (in round brackets)• Assembly Measure nawm number in round bracketsfollowed by a ,• or Welsh Statutory Instrument year / SI (W.) numberfollowed by a ,• Available at: URL• (Accessed: date) followed by .Assembly Measures (nawm):The 2014 Measure (Primary WelshMedium Provision Measure 2014)confirms this view.Statutory Instruments (W):This can be seen in the WelshStatutory Instrument (EnhancedWind Farm Density (Wales) Order2015)Assembly Measures (nawm):Primary Welsh Medium Provision Measure 2014(nawm 202). Available at: h�p://www.legisla�on.gov.uk/mwa/2014/202/2019-05-08(Accessed: 17 September 2014).Statutory Instruments (W):Enhanced Wind Farm Density (Wales) Order 2015.Welsh Statutory Instrument 2015/ 543 (W.48).Available at: h�p://www.legisla�on.gov.uk/wsi/2015/543/contents/made(Accessed: 17 September 2015).7.4 Na�onal Assembly for Wales Legisla�onREFERENCING HANDBOOK: HARVARD16.In-text cita�on• Name of case enclosed in ‘ ’• Year of publica�on• Enclose cita�on (in round brackets)Reference list / Bibliography• Name of case enclosed in ‘ ’• Year of publica�on (in round brackets)• Title of law report in italics followed by ,• Volume number followed by ,• Page numbersIt was clearly shown in the earliercase (‘R v. Jones (Thomas)’, 2004).‘R v. Jones (Thomas)’ (2004) Weekly Legal Briefings, 23,pp. 36-37.Neutral cita�ons iden�fy a case without reference to the printed law report series, in which it waspublished. They can help to iden�fy the case online (Pears and Shields, 2016, p.55).How do I reference specific types of resources?7.5 Law report (case)• Name of par�es in italics andenclosed in ‘ ’• Year of publica�on• Enclose cita�on (in round brackets)• Name of par�es in italics and enclosed in ‘ ’• Year of publica�on (in round brackets)• Court and case number followed by .• Database or website in italics• [online]• Available at: URL• (Accessed: date) followed by .The case of ‘Adams v. South MerciaPolice’ (2013) proves this point.‘Adams v. South Mercia Police’ (2013) United KingdomSupreme Court, case 45. Brieflegal [Online] Availableat: h�p://www.brieflegal.org/uk/cases/UKSC/2013/45.html. (Accessed: 17 September 2015).7.6 Law report (case) – neutral cita�onREFERENCING HANDBOOK: HARVARD17.In-text cita�on• Name of government department• Year of publica�on• Enclose cita�on (in round brackets)Reference list / Bibliography• Name of goverment department• Year of publica�on (in round brackets)• Title in italics followed by ,• Place of publica�on followed by :• Publisher name followed by .Predicted changes in climate condi�onshave led to a reconsidera�on of therole of flood barriers (Department ofthe Environment, 2014).Department of the Environment (2014) Erratc ClimateConditons and the Role of Natural Flood Barriers.Available at: h�p://www.doe.gov.uk/en/Publica�onsandsta�s�cs/Publica�ons/Publica�onsPolicyand Guidance/DOE 76453 (Accessed: 3 June 2014).How do I reference specific types of resources?7.7 Government publica�onREFERENCING HANDBOOK: HARVARD18.NoteIf accessed online, replace loca�onand publisher with:Available at: URL. (Accessed: date)followed by .In-text cita�on: Reference list / Bibliography:• Name of authorising organisa�on• Year of publica�on• enclose cita�on (in round brackets)• Name of authorising organisa�on followed by ,• Publica�on year (in round brackets)• Number and �tle of standard in italics followed by .• Place of publica�on followed by :• Name of publisher followed by .Rates vary considerably betweenboroughs (Phelps, 2016).Phelps, P.W. (2016) A study of business rates inLondon. London: Crabtree Centre for Research.8.1 Technical standard8. Scien�fic and technical informa�onMost references to scien�fic and technical informa�on should adhere to the following generalformat. Elements may very slightly. Specific examples are provided.In-text cita�on• Surname of inventor(s)• Year of publica�on• Enclose cita�on (in round brackets)Reference list / Bibliography• Surname of inventor(s) followed by ,• Ini�als followed by .• Year of publica�on (in round brackets)• Title in italics followed by .• Authorising organisa�on• Patent number followed by .• Available at: URL• (Accessed: date) followed by .This is evidenced further in thedocument (Patel, 2013).Patel, P. (2013) Self-Inflatng Tyre. UK IntellectualProperty Office Patent no. GB456738. Availableat: h�p://www.ipo.gov.uk/pub (Accessed 6October 2014).How do I reference specific types of resources?8.2 Patent• Author surname• Year of publica�on• Enclose cita�on (in round brackets)• Author’s surname followed by ,• Ini�als followed by .• Year of publica�on (in round brackets)• Title in italics followed by .• Place of publica�on followed by:• Publisher name followed by ,• Page number or figure number for graph• graphThis effect can be clearlydemonstrated in a graph (Wolf,2017).Wolf, E. (2017) A comparison of water usage byregion. Carmarthen: Bridge Press, p. 34, graph.8.3 GraphREFERENCING HANDBOOK: HARVARD19.Most references to reviews should adhere to the following general format. Elements may veryslightly. Specific examples are provided.9.1 Book reviewIn-text cita�on• Reviewer surname• Year of publica�on• Enclose cita�on (in round brackets)Reference list / Bibliography• Reviewer surname followed by ,• Ini�als followed by .• Year of review publica�on (in round brackets)• Title of review enclosed in ‘ ’ followed by .• Review of … �tle being reviewed in italics followed by ,• Patent number followed by .• by … author/director of work• Publica�on details (�tle in italic)McConnell (2015), however, didnot support this analysis.McConnell, E.J. (2015) ‘Marching to Victory’.Review of Recruit to soldier: training techniquesin ancient and modern armies, by ThomasJenkinson. Journal of Military History, 10(2), pp.21-23.9.2 Film reviewThe reputa�on of the film hasrecently undergone a re-evalua�on(Connington, 2009).Connington, K.L. (2009) ‘A rediscovered classic’.Review of Dark Enemy, directed by GeorgePhelps. Available at: h�p://www.imdb.com/pp03489/reviews (Accessed: 19 April 2016).9.3 Drama reviewIt was considered by at least onereviewer (Willis, 2017, p. 10) to bean innova�ve and successfulapproach to staging the play.Willis, J.W. (2017) ‘Family fun for all’. Review ofBeside the seaside, by P. Welling. Grand Theatre,Scarborough. Evening Times (Review sec�on), 10July, p. 10.How do I reference specific types of resources?9. ReviewsREFERENCING HANDBOOK: HARVARD20.Note: If accessed online, replaceloca�on and publisher with• Available at: URL• (Accessed: date) followed by .Most references to visual materials should adhere to the following general format. Elements mayvery slightly. Specific examples are provided.10.1 Exhibi�onIn-text cita�on• Ar�st surname• Year of publica�on• Enclose cita�on (in round brackets)Reference list / Bibliography• Ar�st surname followed by ,• Ini�als followed by .• Year if known (in round brackets)• Title of work in italics• Medium [in square brackets], if necessary• Ins�tu�on / collec�on where work is held• City where work is held• Date viewed (in round brackets)A major retrospec�ve wassubsequently organised(Chagall: a celebra�on, 2009).Chagall: a celebraton (2009) [Exhibi�on]. TateModern, London. 15 September 2009-23January 2010.10.2 Pain�ng / drawingThe process used is unique(Puerto, 1730).Puerto, M. (1730) Madonna [Oil on canvas].Available at: h�p://www.cambartonline.com(Accessed: 21 April 2017).10.3 Installa�on / exhibitThis can be seen clearly in Livingroom by Paula Granger (2004).Granger, P. (2004) Living room [Installa�on].Thames gallery, London. (Viewed: 5 August 2004).10.4 Photograph in an online collec�onThis last work illustrated all hisfavourites themes, workingtogether (Evans, 2008).Evans, K. (2008) Rose. Available at:h�ps://Instagram.com/rose (Accessed: 16June 2017).How do I reference specific types of resources?10. Visual materialsREFERENCING HANDBOOK: HARVARD21.Note: If accessed online, replaceloca�on and publisher with• Available at: URL• (Accessed: date) followed by .10.5 Book illustra�on, figure, diagram, logo and tableIn-text cita�on• Choreographer surname• Year of premiere• Enclose cita�on (in round brackets)Reference list / Bibliography• Choreographer surname followed by ,• Ini�als followed by .• Year of premiere (in round brackets)• Title in italics• Loca�on and date seen [in square brackets]In-text cita�onIn printed book:Stewart’s pain�ng highlights thisfeature of the house (Lewis, 1995,pp. 78-79).Online:The trend for this type of porcelainhas been clearly illustrated(George, 2006).Reference list / BibliographyIn printed book:Lewis, P.R. (1995) The art of the stately home. Oxford:Century Books, pp. 78-79, illus.Online:George, T.L. (2006) An inventory of London’s oldesthouses [Table]. Available at:h�p://www.invent/lonhouses.com (Accessed 2February 2015).Graffi� can o�en reveal feelingswhich are deeply held in an area(Peaceful progress, 2000)Peaceful Progress [Graffi�] (2000) 15 Gate Street,Belfast, Northern Ireland. (Viewed: 5 August2002).10.6 Graffi�How do I reference specific types of resources?Most references to live performances should adhere to the following general format. Elementsmay very slightly. Specific examples are provided.11. Live PerformanceREFERENCING HANDBOOK: HARVARD22.The performance incorporatedmany of the mannerisms of thecreator himself (Steele, 1953)Steele, E. (1953) Work day blues [Red Shed Theatre,London. 5 May 2016].11.1 Dance
NoteIf accessed online• Available at: URL.• (Accessed: date) followed by .12.1 Television programme12.2 Television programme viewed on the internetMost references to film and television should adhere to the following general format. Elementsmay very slightly. Specific examples are provided.12. Film and televisionIn-text cita�on• Title of episode italics• Year of broadcast• Enclose cita�on (in round brackets)Reference list / Bibliography• Title of episode enclosed in ‘ ’• Year of broadcast (in round brackets)• Title of programme in italics• Series and espiode number• Channel name• Date broadcastThis sweeping overview s�llprovides a lot of telling details (Ahistory of Britain, 2012).A history of Britain (2012) BBC One Television, 5September.The impact of Shelley’s ownexperience as a mother wasexplored in Mary Shelley: A Writer’sLife (‘Love and Loss’, 2016).‘Love and Loss’ (2016) Mary Shelley: A Writer’s Life,Episode 3. BBC 4, 25 October. Available at:h�p://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/maryshelley/episodeguide/ep3 (Accessed: 3 November 2016).
In-text cita�on• Title in italics• Year of performance• Enclose cita�on (in round brackets)Reference list / Bibliography• Title in italics• by …• Year of performance (in round brackets)• Directed by …• Loca�on and date seen [in square brackets]The set design was an astonishingachievement (Macbeth, 2008).Macbeth by William Shakespeare (2008) Directed byJohn Wood [Old Theatre, Bristol, 3 March 2008].
11.2 PlayHow do I reference specific types of resources?REFERENCING HANDBOOK: HARVARD23.
See also the sec�on on the internet (3) for referencing films viewed online.12.4 Film on DVD / Blu-rayIn-text cita�on• Title of film• Year of distribu�on• Enclose cita�on (in round brackets)Reference list / Bibliography• Title of film in italics• Year of distribu�on (in round brackets)• Directed by …• Medium [in square brackets]• Place of distribu�on followed by :• Distribu�on company followed by .In the history of Gothic cinema, thebest films leave the audiencewondering, for example An EyeThrough the Keyhole (1979).An Eye Through the Keyhole (1979) Directed by KathyDelgado [DVD]. London: Hecate Films.12.5 Interview with a film director on DVD / Blu-rayThe director emphasized howtechnically challenging the shoo�ngschedule was (Williams, 2012).Williams, C. (2012) ‘Interview with C. Williams’.Interviewed by B. Rodgers. Shadow of the Ice Caves[Blu-ray]. Los Angeles, Calif.: Blue Diamond Produc�onsInc.
When using personal communica�ons, ensure you have permission from the sender before ci�ng.13. Personal communica�onsConversaton, Skype, phone, Facetme, email, text, leterIn-text cita�on• Surname of sender• Year of communica�on• Enclose cita�on (in round brackets)Reference list / Bibliography• Surname of sender followed by ,• Ini�als followed by .• Year of communica�on (in round brackets)• Medium• Reciever of communica�on followed by ,• Day and month of communica�on
12.3 FilmHow do I reference specific types of resources?REFERENCING HANDBOOK: HARVARD24.
14.2 Individual manuscript14.1 Collec�on of manuscriptsRecords confirm that such beliefspersisted in Yorkshire at this �me(York Library, Pendlemerry WitchTrials MS).York Library, Pendlemerry Witch Trials MS.Most references to manuscripts should adhere to the following general format. Elements mayvery slightly. Specific examples are provided.14. ManuscriptsIn-text cita�on• Loca�on of collec�on• Name of collec�on• MS• Enclose cita�on (in round brackets)Reference list / Bibliography• Loca�on of collec�on• Name of collec�on• MSThoughts of peace occupied theminds of people all over thecountry at this �me (Nesbit-Jones,1812)Nesbit-Jones, T. (1812) Prayer for Peace, 3 May.Nesbit-Jones Archive 156 C12/1, Chesire Trust, Chester.• Surname of author / �tle• Year• Enclose cita�on (in round brackets)• Surname of author if known followed by ,• Ini�als followed by .• Year (in round brackets)• Title of manuscript in italics• Day and month if known in italics• Name of collec�on• Reference number of manuscript• Loca�on of collec�onHow do I reference specific types of resources?REFERENCING HANDBOOK: HARVARD25.

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