Motives of volunteering

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                              Motives of volunteering
Abstract
The purpose of this project is to explore the purpose of evaluating how people selectively optimize their activities involving in volunteering. The study was to test random people regarding gender, age and level of age on motives for volunteering. The Voluntary Functions Inventory (Clary et.al., 1998) was completed by 36 respondents selected randomly. Results indicated that female are more likely to volunteer as motivations expressions ( values, understanding, social, protective,career) were higher than male except for enhancement motivations, which male indicated that it was more important to them. This study adapted Clary et al.’s (1998) six themes of functional analysis to delve deeper into the motivations of participating in voluntary activities, especially the notion that community participation centres on personal development and empowerment individual/group level (Order, 2014b). Statements on motivation used VFI (Clary et.al., 1998) to assess six prominent motivations of the participants.
Keywords: motivations, age, gender, volunteering, social capita, social cohesion
Introduction
Why people volunteer has been a long-time fascination found by the Social Scientist. Without any expectations of reward or compensation, the volunteers give their time to some organisation (Snyder and Omoto, 2008). The 2011 ‘National Survey of Volunteering Issues’ suggests that volunteers’ primary motivations are a ‘sense of purpose’ and the ‘difference they make to the community (Volunteering Australia, 2011, p. 4). These two primary motivations may be applied by volunteering generally.
 Clary et al.’s (1998) work focus on how and what drives can be done for continued participation from the volunteers and how can they be motivated. This can be further elaborated on the motives to volunteer by age and  gender. Order’s (2014b) study found that personal development and empowerment at the individual or group level are the primary value for community participation.  Volunteering allows an individual or group to connect to the community and make it a better place. Volunteering is a two-way street: It can benefit an individual and the family as much as the cause they choose to help. Dedicating time as a volunteer helps make new friends, expand the network, and boost social skills. In 2013, Volunteering Australia defined volunteering as the “time willingly given for the common good and without financial gain”.
In recent years, psychosociological studies about volunteerism have increased and several theoretical models to explain volunteerism have been developed (eg. Omoto and Snyder, 1995,2002.). The motivation to volunteer is a factor in some theoretical models, and it is considered important for understanding participation in volunteer services (Black and Di Nitto, 1994; Clary and Snyder, 1991; Omoto and Snyder, 1990). Clary and Snyder (2991) designed this theory to explain the different types of motives that can determine participation in volunteer services. This approach holds that different individuals may participate in the same volunteer work for very different reasons, and voluntary can satisfy different motives for s ame individual at different times. Clary and Snyder (1991) identified six primary motives: protective, values, social, understanding, career, and enhancement. This study adapted Clary et al.’s (1998) six themes of functional analysis to delve deeper into the motivations of volunteers, (Order, 2014b). Statements on motivation used VFI (Clary et.al., 1998) to assess six prominent motivations of the participants.
Volunteerism is a necessary form of community involvement that can provide both physical, self-welfare and social connection benefits for volunteers and positive outcomes for the community. However, volunteers get involved for different reasons, and recent studies suggest that other-oriented volunteers may accrue more significant health benefits than self-oriented volunteers.
This study adapted Clary et al.’s (1998) six themes of functional analysis to delve deeper into the motivations of volunteers, especially the notion that community participation centres on personal development and empowerment individual/group level (Order, 2014b). Statements on motivation used VFI (Clary et.al., 1998) to assess six prominent motivations of the participants. Therefore, to investigate the motives to participate in voluntary activities, this study surveyed random people on their motivations using the Volunteer Functions Inventory (VFI), together with their age, gender and level of education.
This project aims to study why people participate in voluntary activities for a community and how volunteering motivations differ from age and gender of an individual perspective of volunteering. This study will emphasise the importance of exploring the motivations and its association with age and gender.
1.Literature review:
1.1Volunteering
Snyder and Omoto define volunteering as those Freely chosen and deliberate helping activities that extend over time and are engaged in without expectation of reward or other compensation and often through formal organisations, and that are performed on behalf of causes or individuals who desire assistance (2008, p. 3). In 2013, Volunteering Australia defined volunteering as the “time willingly given for the common good and without financial gain”.
Since the early 1990s, volunteering has steadily increased in Australia to reach a peak in 2010. The Australian Bureau of Statistics Volunteering Australia collated information from the 2016 Census that showed that Australia’s population is 23.4 million people and, that of this:
• 3.6 million people or 19.0% of the population engaged in voluntary work through an or group are aged 15 years and over. This is a 1.2% increase from the 2011 Census results, where 17.8% of people responded they were engaged in voluntary work.
• The volunteering rates are highest among males aged 45-54 years at 302,612 people.
• The volunteering rates are highest among women aged 35-44 at 399,889 people.
• Overall, the rates of volunteering are highest in the 45–54-year age group at 679,602 people.
However, in the past years of the survey found in the report The Australian Bureau of Statistics tracking volunteering rates for two decades through the General Social Survey, volunteering rates decreased from 36 per cent in 2010 to 31 per cent in 2014. The General Social Survey suggested that the decrease in volunteerism may be linked to a lower level of work-life balance among Australians than other OECD countries and a perception of being ‘time-poor’, ‘rushed’, or ‘pressed for time’ (ABS, 2015).
The recent decrease in Australia’s volunteering level suggests a need for non-profit and community organisations to continue developing strategies to attract and retain their unpaid workforce. Such approaches rely on organisations having an understanding of what volunteers gain from giving their time.
One practical approach has been to investigate the motivations of volunteers using functional analysis. Snyder (1993) developed available research to explore the underlying factors in people’s behaviour, an approach later applied by Clary et al. (1998) to volunteerism. Clary et al. (1998) sought to investigate why similar acts of volunteering result from variations in motivational processes and how the functions of volunteering encouraged the initial decision to volunteer alongside continued participation.
Clary et al.’s functional approach to volunteering motivation encourages a complex analysis of why people engage in volunteering activities. Moreover, Clary et al.’s method can be practically applied, as they explain that people can be recruited into volunteer work by appealing to their psychological functions, that they will come to be satisfied volunteers to the extent that they engage in volunteer work that serves their psychological functions, and that they will plan to continue to serve as volunteers to the extent that their service is serving their psychological functions (Clary et al., 1998).
1.2 Motives of Volunteering
Motives reflect the tendency to strive for a general class of incentives that are emotionally salient (McClelland, 1985 ). Clary and co-workers (1998) identified six classes of motives for volunteering (career enhancement, learning new skills, social interaction, escape from negative feelings, personal development, and expression of prosocial values). Of these motives, value-expressive motives have the strongest conceptual link to volunteering because it taps into the endorsement of care-based values to voluntarily assist others (Carlo, Okun, Knight, & de Guzman, 2005 ). Empirically, value-expressive volunteer motivation is positively related to volunteering ( Penner & Finkelstein, 1998 ) and is posited to be a proximal antecedent of volunteering ( Carlo et al., 2005 ). 
1.3Demographics
Age differences in motivations to volunteer have thus far rarely been analyzed (Black and Jirovic, 1999; Okun and Skultz, 2003). A review of some studies showed that in some cases there were similarities between younger and older volunteers (e.g Black and Jirovic, 1999; Clary and Snyder,1999; Marriot Seniors Volunteerism Study, 1991), while other studies have found that younger volunteers give more importance to career motives (Black and Kovacs, 1999; Clary and Snyder, 1999; Okun, Barr and Herzog, 1998; Okun and Schultz, 2003) and to protective motives for volunteering (Black and Kovacs, 1999; Ferrari, Loftus and Pesek, 1999). However, older volunteers give more importance to social motives (Greenslade and White, 2005; Okun, Barr and Herzog, 1998; Okun and Schultz, 2003; Zewigenhatt, Armstong, Quintis and Ridick, 1996)
The effect of gender on the motivations of young adults to volunteer, however, has received relatively little research attention. Examining the effect of gender on the motivations of young adults to volunteer was the objective of this study . Past research suggests that gender may play a role in volunteering. Hodgkinson and Weitzman (1996) and Wilson (2000), for instance, ob- served that females are slightly more likely to volunteer than are males.
Past research also suggests that males and females may undertake volunteering for different reasons. Little (1997), for instance, suggests that males are more likely to volunteer to support their career and Wuthnow (1995) suggests that females are more likely to undertake volunteering for social reasons. Moreover, Wilson and Musick (1997) observed that females attach more importance to helping others. When viewed in the context of the six motives for volunteering suggested by Clary et al. (1998), it would seem logical to expect differences in the strengths of the motives to volunteer held by males and females–females can be ex- pected to possess stronger motivations to volunteer which are based on personal or relationship issues, such as social, protective, understand- ing, and value motivations whereas males can be expected to possess stronger motivations to volunteer which are based on career issues, such as career and esteem. Based on the majority of previous research, males can logically be expected to possess stronger career and esteem motivations and females can logically be expected to possess stronger social, protective, under- standing, and value motivations.
Empirical research which has examined this issue, however, does not appear to always support these contentions. Van Emmerik, Jawaher and Stone (2004), for instance, did not observe any difference in vol unteering activity between males and females. Furthermore, using a relatively small sample of medical students, Fletcher and Major (2004) examined gender differences in motivation to volunteer using the motivations of Clary et al. (1998) and observed no support to the hypothesized differences in career or social motivations to engage in volunteering. They did, however, observe differences in the other moti- vations to volunteer suggested by Clary et al. (1998)–values, esteem, understanding, and protective. In each instance, females were observed to possess a stronger motivation than males. Given the inconsistency of findings of past research, additional research examining the effect of gender is warranted.
Education status appears to have a profound effect on the involve- ment of members of Generation Y in volunteerism. Although all are sig- nificantly involved in volunteering, young adults enrolled in school volunteer at a rate twice that of those not enrolled in school (Boraas, 2003), a trend that continues after graduation from college (Oesterle, Johnson and Mortimer, 2004). Similarly, Davis-Smith (1999) observed a strong positive relationship between the level at which one ceases their education and the extent of their volunteering activities. Indeed, recent college graduates volunteer at twice the rate of high school grad- uates and four times that of high school dropouts (Boraas, 2003).
The reasons for the differing rates of participation have not been empiri- cally examined, but several logical possibilities exist. Individuals who have pursued education to a higher degree, for instance, may find themselves with greater amounts of “free time” in which to pursue such activities. Furthermore, education is associated with higher social class and Sundeed and Raskoff (1995) observed that individuals from higher social classes are more likely to volunteer than are individuals from lower classes.
Moreover, individuals who have pursued education to a greater degree may find that they are exposed to more volunteering opportunities through their possibly broader business and social connections. Finally, the educational process itself is often structured to increase students’ awareness of social needs in their environments and of their responsibilities as citizens to actively become involved in addressing these needs. This issue will be discussed further.
1.4 Social Capital
Social capital is a multifaceted concept. Indeed the literature reveals a variety of definitions, with different scholars sometimes using ‘‘social capital’’ to mean different things. Nevertheless, the concept is generally regarded as including aspects of social networks and/or social trust. Here, we use social capital to refer to both an individual’s social networks of friends, families, and organizations, and his or her social trust of others and authority. More specifically, we consider five social capital indices: four indices of networks—bridging social networks, informal social networks, civic engagement, and organized group activism, and one index of social trust.
To address the question of social capital’s importance in understanding the volunteers, this study will measure and explore individuals’ influence on volunteering levels. In particular, the survey will design to empirically explore the relationship between the station and social capital formation. This article will explore how involvement with the station affects one’s social connections and civic capacity. 
Whether and to what magnitude volunteering for a non-profit organisation contributes to social capital formation, volunteers will be asked to identify the type of programs they engage that provides mostly to the community and provide them with the greatest personal benefit, which may or may not be an organisation for which they volunteer. The possible benefits listed in the survey question will include the two social capital benefits discussed in the previous section—social connections and civic capacity—and physical health, well-being, sense of community, level of knowledge, and overall quality of life. Social capital refers to the ‘‘networks, norms, and social trust that facilitate coordination and cooperation for mutual benefits’’ (Putnam 1995, p. 67). Only a handful of studies, however, have examined the relationship between social capital and individual philanthropic behavior—the voluntary contribution of time and/or money to collective goods. In addition, these studies have different interpretations of how social capital, volunteering and giving are related. For example, Narayan and Cassidy (2001) used volunteering and/or giving as one of the indices to measure social capital. However, Putnam argued: ‘‘Doing good for other people… is not part of the definition of social capital’’ (Putnam 2000 p. 117).We adopt the view that social capital is distinct from individual charitable behavior (Brooks ; Brown and Ferris 2007; Goss 1999; Putnam 2000) and posit that both social capital and volunteering behavior promote charitable giving, controlling for individual demographics, human and financial capital, religiosity and psychological inclination to give.
Social capital refers to the resources that are derived from relationships with other people and organizations. Smith (1994) concluded from his review of the literature that ties to other people and organizations were important determinants of being a volunteer. Social resources include infor- mal and formal social ties (Wilson, 2000). Both informal social resources such as having children (Wilson & Musick, 1997) and formal social resources such as ties to organizations (Harootyan, 1996) increase the likelihood that older adults volunteer.
Personal Social Cohesion
Social cohesion is often described as the social connections, trust, and/or overall solidarity among residents. A recent literature review identified factors such as social relations and communal activities as essential aspects of social cohesion; however, the definition of social cohesion can vary. By providing places where people can potentially bond with others and engage in a range of social and communal activities, urban parks and green spaces can facilitate civic activities. Scholars describe how social cohesion is within the social determinants of health and linked to positive health outcomes such as increased physical activity, lower levels of stress, and improved subjective well-being. Although social cohesion is a major pathway influencing the relationship between green space and health, it also represents an area in need of additional research, especially in cities. However, measuring social cohesion has been challenging.
Volunteer activity is linked with reciprocity and trust and considered one of the most common indicators of social cohesion. Volunteerism involves activities where people freely give to individuals or a cause in ways that are beneficial to societies overall. Volunteering is considered a pro-social behavior that links people to the production and exchange of goods and services; it can further build on a moral effort to benefit a cause to which the participant is affiliated. Being involved in volunteer efforts may improve one’s perception of themselves and their surroundings, as well as provide access to beneficial resources and contacts . Volunteering may also relate to social ties, which are a key predictor of place attachment and collective action.
The term social exclusionseems to have gained currency in part because it has no precise definition and means all things to all people (Atkinson, 1998: 6).
Bowling in a league or having coffee with a friend embodies and creates social capital (Putnam, 1995: 665)
These two quotations indicate three major difficulties that arise in talking about social cohesion and voluntary activity. First, social cohesion has no precise definition. Second, social cohesion is often taken to be the same as voluntary activity: voluntary activity embodies social cohesion. This identification makes it hard to discover any causal relationships between cohesion and voluntarism. Third, there are three terms in common use — social capital, social exclusion, and social cohesion — which refer to similar, but different, social phenomena. In discussing social cohesion, one can differentiate processes, the way that social cohesion is created, and outcomes, that is, whether a particular society is cohesive or not.
Cohesion as interaction is closely connected to Putnam’s work on social capital. Putnam defines social capital as the features of social life — networks, norms, and trust — that enable participants to act together more effectively to pursue shared objectives. Putnam (1995) argues for causal relationships between voluntary activities and trust, the more we connect with other people, the more we trust them, and vice versa (p. 665). Putnam argues – not uncontroversially – that television, by keeping people indoors and decreasing membership in various associations, is a key reason for the decline in trust in the US over time. Because Putnam found such a strong relationship between voluntary activity and social capital, other writers have tended to treat the two as synonymous: if there is social cohesion there will be a strong voluntary sector, if there is a strong voluntary sector there must be social cohesion.
The online survey questionnaire will include questions about participation. This section of enquiry is relevant to this study on motivation to participate in voluntary activities.  This group of questions intends to uncover volunteer perceptions of  their motivations, incentives, day-to-day experiences, their role in the station structure, any empowerment, enjoyment, social needs, or sense of community duty and experiences alongside any additional information that might inform their volunteer experiences. Thus, to conduct this study, online survey questionnaires involve open-ended and close-ended questionnaires to obtain data about benefit outcomes and the benefits of volunteering.
Sense of Community
Sense of Community has been defined as a “feeling that members have of belonging, a feeling that members matter to one another and to the group, and a shared faith that members’ needs will be met through their com- mitment to be together” (McMillan & Chavis, 1986, p. 9). Omoto and Snyder (2002) highlight the role of sense of community in understanding the dynamics of becoming a volunteer. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether sense of community is a predictor of who volunteers and who does not volunteer among young-old adults. Although Neugarten (1974) originally designated adults between the ages of 65 and 74 years old as the young-old, more recently this designation has been applied to adults between the ages of 60 and 74 years old (Melinchok, McEvoy, Stewart, Rimkus, & Yeager, 2002).
To establish community connections, this study will explore how the volunteers are able to connect the community and how the community voices will be heard, regardless of age, gender, ethnicity and ability. A close examination of their survey questionnaire response will suggest a broader array of motivation, and the analysis will reveal the development of a sense of community through volunteering in a community radio context. From the volunteering standpoint, community broadcasting allows for real, local issues to be discussed and community connections to be established. It provides for community voices to be heard – regardless of age, gender, ability, ethnicity or sexual orientation.
Based on the empirical findings, the following research questions were developed for this study:
Gender, age, and level of education affects one’s motivations for volunteering.  Different gender, age and level of education possess differing motivations for engaging in volunteering activities.
1.What are the motives to participate in the voluntary activities ?
2. Are there any difference in motives for volunteering between gender and age?
4. Is there a relationship between different motives and social capital, motives and social cohesion and motives and sense of community?
2.Methodology
2.1Research Setting
This study adopted a quantitative research approach to understand better the motivations and values of participating in volunteering activities for a community. The research approach also included convenience sampling. A convenience sample is a non-probability sampling method where the sample is taken from a group of people easy to contact or reach. Thus, the sample of participants comprised of randomly selected people. A survey method was used to collect data. A survey questionnaire was developed based on five variables- volunteer experiences, motivations, perceived values, social capital, and sense of community. The survey questionnaire was created on Survey Monkey, and the link was sent to the respondent via email, messages, Facebook Messenger, and WeChat. In total, 36 surveys online were completed via Survey Monkey.
2.2Measurement
Clary et. al. (1998) six Voluntary Functional Inventory were utilised in this study to understand the participant’s engagement and the values of their participation in volunteering activities. This will help enhance the roles of the local community in better understanding their volunteers and developing programs for the volunteers. The scale item of motivational factors was adapted from Clary et al. six volunteering functions.The questionnaire was composed of 10 questions of which 6 questions were composed of a five-point Likert-scale response format, ranging from 1(strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). The scores for each of the six motivation scales identified by Clary et. al (values, understanding, enhancement, career, social and protective) were formed on five-point Likert-scale. The scale items on perceived benefits, social capital, personal social cohesion, and sense of the community were all measured, using a Likert scale ranging from strongly disagree to agree strongly. Also, data on demographic characters, educational background and employment status were also collected.
2.3 Data Collection
The target population was selected randomly using the convenience sampling method. 36 respondents were surveyed online on survey monkey. In order to collect data, the link to the survey was sent through messages, Facebook messenger, Wechat and email. The survey resulted in total respondents of 36.
2.4Data Analysis Procedure
Quantitative data was collected from questionnaire from survey monkey and the Data was imported and further changed to numeric form to apply to SPSS. Descriptive analysis was used to describe the sample demographics with regard to age, gender, level of education and employment status. SPSS was used to analyse respondent. Items under each question were measured for mean score for reliability. The analysed data then displayed in the form of a table, pie chart, and graph for further interpretation and evaluation. In order to measure the differences between two independent groups ( gender, age, level of education and employment status) on dependent variable (motivations), the independent samples T-test were used to analyze the results. Descriptive analysis was also conducted of the motivations using age group, gender, level of education and employment status.
To understand how gender associates with the motivation to participate in voluntary activities, it is important to understand that of the six motivational function analysis, which one greatly motivates which gender and age group. It is also important to understand if age, level of education or employment status also associated with the motivations of volunteering. While different groups in sample agreed or disagreed to different motivations for volunteering, it was analyzed that women ranked all motivations expressions higher than male except for enhancement motivations, which men indicated that it was more important to them. The Pearson correlation coefficient were conducted to correlate the motivational variables towards
3 Findings
3.1 Profile of the respondents
The results of the respondent information are shown in Table 1. A total of 36 responses were collected. Of the participants, 41. 7% (n=15) were female and 58.3% (n=21) were male. Of the respondents, the majority participants were male (n=21). The age of the participants varied between 19-60. The sample breakdown by the level of age was 19-34 and 35-60 of which both account for 50% each of the sample. The sample breakdown by the level of education was undergraduate degree and below with 13.9%(n=5) of the sample and majority of the respondent’s level of education was postgraduate/diploma and above accounting to 86.1% (n=31)of the sample. Within the sample, majority of respondents were working fulltime or parttime accounting for 83.3% (n=30) and 16.7% (n=6) of the respondents were looking for work or doing fulltime education.
    Table 1. Profile of respondents

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Characteristics
Subgroup categories
Frequency (n)
%
Age
19-34
18
50

35-60
18
50
Gender
Female
15
41.7

Male
21
58.3
Level of Education
Undergraduate degree and below
5
13.9

Postgraduate/Diploma and above
31
86.1
Employment status
Workingfulltime‎/workingpartime
30
83.3

Lookingforwork‎/fulltime education
6
16.7
The survey consists of
Volunteering experience, Motivation, Social Capital, Personal Social Cohesion, Sense of the community
Voluntary experiences
Out of 36 responses for voluntary experiences,5.56% volunteered regularly, 77.78% volunteered sometimes, and 16.67% did not volunteer. To assess satisfaction with their participation in volunteer activity, we asked volunteers to respond to a single item (“Do you participate in any voluntary activities?) on a point scale ranging from 1 (Yes, regularly), 2 (Yes, sometimes) and 3 (No, I don’t). On average, respondents contributed to participating in voluntary activities sometimes.
Table 2. Participation in voluntary activities
Do you participate in any types of voluntary work?

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Answer
Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent

Yes,regulary
2
5.6
5.6
5.6

Yes,sometimes
28
77.8
77.8
83.3

No, I dont
6
16.7
16.7
100

Total
36
100
100

Motivation
Clary et al.’s (1998) six functional motivation analysis was applied. It contained five items to which participants responded using a 5-point Likert scale to indicate whether a particular reason for volunteering was strongly agreeable for them (1-Strongly disagree, 5-Strongly agree). With regard to enhancement , a reverse scaling was done in order to get a significant result. Motivation’s variables were then computed in three groups 1. Values/understanding(M=4.556 SD=.57044), ii.Enhancement/career (M=4.0972, SD=.61898) and iii. Social/Protective (M=3.3889, SD= .67730). The findings for motivations are divided in 2 parts.
Part 1
Table 3. Summary of sample motive to volunteer regarding different gender.
Motivations variables
Gender
Mean
SD
t
df
Value/understanding
F
4.6333
.48058
.686
34
 
M
4.5
.63242
Enhancement/career
F
4
.70711
.-792
 
M
4.1667
.55528
Social/Protective
F
3.4
.78376
.082
 
M
3.3810
.61043
In order to investigate the difference between two independent groups on an approximately normal dependent variables, the independent samples t tests were conducted. As shown in the table, value/understanding expression(M=4.72, SD=.77) was the most important motive, followed by  enhancement/career (M=4.0972, SD=.61898 and with social/protective motivation (M=3.3889, SD=.67730) the least important motive for volunteering.
Nevertheless, different groups in the sample agreed or disagreed to different motivations for volunteering. For eg, as shown in  table 3, female ranked two motivation groups(i and iii) higher than male except for enhancement/career motivations, which male indicated that it was more important to them. With regard to the value/understanding motivation and social/protective motivations , it is shown in the table that women are likely to be more to volunteer.In one of the studies, Clary et. al. (1996) found similar differences in gender, where it was reported that women were socially motivated than men. The gender differenences in motivation is very small in the sample, however women are often more likely to serve as volunteers than men. For eg, Musick and Wilson (2008) suggested that women are more socialized to take more responsibility for others, adopting a more communal approach to life, whereas men may be more likely to take an instrumental approach. Such differences may result in different choices about how to volunteer as well as in differing rates of volunteerism. Overall, the results showed that vale/understanding is the most important motive for both women and men, followed by enhancement/career and the least motive being the social/protective motivations.
Table 4.Comparison of motivation variables with different age groups.
Motivations variable
Age group
Mean
SD
t
df 34
Value/understanding
19-34
4.36
.659
-2.148
 
35-60
4.75
.392
Enhancement/career
19-34
4.11
.556
.133
 
35-60
4.08
.691
Social/Protective
19-34
3.44
.615
.487
 
35-60
3.33
.745
 
Across the age spectrum, the table shows that the younger age group between 19-34 were more likely to volunteer on the basis of enhancement/career (M=4.1111) and social/protective (M=3.4444) than the older group between 35-60. However, Okun and Skultz (2003) found that whereas career and understanding motivations decreased with age, social motivations increased, suggesting that differences in the desire to experience positive emotions in relationships may be involved. However, in this study, it stands to reason that younger group maybe more interested in volunteering through value/understanding motivations and enhancement /career development than the older group.
Social Capital, Social Cohesion and Sense of community
Table 5 Comparison of male and female on different variables to particpate in voulunteering activities
Variables
Gender
M
SD
t
df
Social Capital
F
3.74
.531
-1.14
34
M
3.99
.7
Personal Cohesion
F
3.70
.405
.212
M
3.60
.456
Sense of community
F
3.55
.628
.87
M
3.60
.849
To investigate more on why people participated in vountary activities, it was examined that the role of different variables to participate in volunteering(social capital, personal cohesion and sense of community) also played a part to volunteer. On average, the sample provided a t-test between different indicators and gender. The table shows  that relative to paricipate in voluntary activities, the social capital indicator (M=3.99)  and sense of community indicator (M=3.60) in male reported more than female. However, female were shown to be dominant to particpate in voluntary activities through personal cohesion (M=3.70) than male.
Table 6 Comparison of age on different variables to particpate in voulunteering activities
Variables
Age group
M
SD
t
df
Social Capital
19-34
3.8
.667
.013
34
35-60
3.8
.629
Personal Cohesion
19-34
3.6
.464
.-939
35-60
3.7
.394
Sense of Community
19-34
3.4
.678
-1.33
35-60
3.7
.58
However, while conducting a. t-test between the indicators and age group, the sample as shown in table shows that younger age group between 19-34 (M=3.8, SD=.667) and older group (M=3.8, SD=.629) is likely to participate equally in voluntary activities for social capital gain. On the otherhand, older group were likely to particpate more in voluntary groups for personal cohesion (M=3.7, SD=.394) and sense of community (M=3.7, SD=.58) than the younger age group. Although, the sample is small and composed of random people rather than volunteers, the indicators to participate in vouluntary activities found here maybe indicative of the benefits that respondants who wish to volunteer have been found important.
Part 2
In this part of the findings, Pearson Correlation Coefficients were conducted to correlate the motivational varialbles towards the three indicators ( social capital, personal cohesion and sense of community) to determine the strength of the linear relationship among variables. The strongest positive correlation, which is considered as a large effect size, was between value/understanding motivations and personal cohesion r=.414, p<0.05. This meant that respondents who have the value/understanding motives are likely to volunteer to have a high personal cohesion. Results also shows that enhancement/career motivations is significant to contribute Social Capital indicator r=.413, p<0.05. The table also shows that age is significant predictor of value/undertsanding motives (r=.346, p<0.05) and not significant for other motivation variables.
Table 7. Correlations for motivation variables towards indicators,age and gender to participate in volunteering.
Variable
Social Capital
Personal Cohesion
Sense of Community
Age
Gender
Value/understanding
0.119
.414*
0.304
.346*
-.117
Enhancement/career
.412*
0.179
0.088
-.023
.135
Social/protective
0.149
-0.088
-0.069
-.083
-.014
*p<0.05
 
 
 
 
 
Discussion:
This study was developed to collect data from random people and the significant findings. Respondents profile shows the equal distribution of numbers within the 2 age groups, 19-34(n=18) and 35-60 (n=18). Of the respondents, 41. 7% (n=15) were female and 58.3% (n=21) were male. 13.9% (n=5) was undergraduate degree and below of the sample and majority of the respondent’s level of education was postgraduate/diploma and above accounting to 86.1% (n=31)of the sample. Within the sample, majority of respondents were working fulltime or parttime accounting for 83.3% (n=30) and 16.7% (n=6) of the respondents were looking for work or doing fulltime education.
With respect to the first reasearch question was to understand the motives of the respondents to participate in voluntary activities. Among all the motivational variables motives to participate in voluntary activities, results show that value/understanding motives were the very important motive to participate in voluntary activities followed by enhancement/career motives. A revision of the descriptive statistics of motivation variables shows that the value/understanding motives are the very important to participate in voluntary activities. Social/Protective motivation was associated with less positive outcomes. For the motivations to volunteer, literatures found out, value-expressive volunteer motivation is positively related to volunteering ( Penner & Finkelstein, 1998 ) and is posited to be a proximal antecedent of volunteering ( Carlo et al., 2005 ). Therefore, the results found in this study are indeed supported by the literatures.
Although, the results show social/protective motivation as less related motivation than the other two motivations, it is found out that understanding motivations was, similar to values/understanding, related to positivity to both outcomes. Thus, given this pattern of results, values/understanding motivations may need to be further investigated to determine that whether it is primarily the most important motive to participate in voluntary activities.
With regard to the second research question to find out if there were any differences between age, gender  and motivations to volunteer, the significant findings will be discussed below.Age differences in motivations to volunteer have thus far rarely been analyzed (Black and Jirovic, 1999; Okun and Skultz, 2003). Although, the sample of this study is small, the results show that that the younger age group between 19-34 were more likely to volunteer on the basis of enhancement/career and social/protective motivations than the older group between 35-60. However, Okun and Skultz (2003) found that whereas career and understanding motivations decreased with age, social motivations increased, suggesting that differences in the desire to experience positive emotions in relationships may be involved.  Therefore, in this study, it stands to reason the literature that younger group maybe more interested in volunteering through value/understanding motivations and enhancement /career development than the older group, where as social/protective motivations are likely to experience by older group. On the other hand, this study shows there is a positive and significant correaltion between age and value/understanding motivations. In previous study, age was positively related to social/protective motive but in the present study, the relationship between social/protective motivations and age was not significant. The values /understanding motivations  was unrelated to age in previous study, but, in the present study , there was a positve relation. These differences could be due to several factors, the principle difference maybe due to the present study being of small sample. While the pevious study used a large scale of volunteers from different organisations, the present study involved random people with only 36 respondents.
With regard to the value/understanding motivation and social/protective motivations , the results show  that women are likely to be more to volunteer than men.In one of the studies, Clary et. al. (1996) found similar differences in gender, where it was reported that women were socially motivated than men. The gender differenences in motivation is very small in the sample, however women are often more likely to serve as volunteers than men. For eg, Musick and Wilson (2008) suggested that women are more socialized to take more responsibility for others, adopting a more communal approach to life, whereas men may be more likely to take an instrumental approach. Therefore, the results from this study further supports the literature that women are more likely to be motivated to participated in voluntary activities than men.
The third research questions were to investigate relationship between motivation variables and social capital, personal social cohesion and sense of community. The research model of the motivation variables was used to survey data as well as to find the correlation among the other indicators of motivations. Results show that respondent’s value/understanding motivations have a positive impact on the personal social cohesion. The results showed that value/understanding motivations as the strongest motivations of personal social cohesion. Interestingly, the study also showed that enhancement/career motivations have a positive impact on Social Capital. This is consistent with the research linking volunteerism with social capital. According to Putnam (2000), volunteering behaviour can result from greater social and community connection. Since the previous study suggest that volunteerism links with social capital, it can be suggested that motivations also play a very important part in linking to social capital. Therefore, the results in this study show, motivation variables like value/ understanding links with the social capital.
Limitations:
With regard to limitations, first, the studied sample was not representative or volunteers of any organisation of the population and the size of the sample was very small. Since the sample was collected randomly who were not volunteers, it limited to the kind of volunteering activities that they participated in. It is necessary to conduct the study on volunteers to understand their motivations to participate in voluntary activities rather than on random people. It is also important to measure on the tenure of being as a volunteer.
Second, the present study is cross-sectional, it is necessary to conduct a longitudinal study to detect developments or changes in the characteristics of the target population at both the group and the individual level. The key here is that longitudinal studies extend beyond a single moment in time. As a result, they can establish sequences of events and provide with more information about the dynamics of change in motivations through their time spent in volunteering and the motives to volunteer.
Third, the individuals may not be aware of their underlying motives for volunteering as most of the respondents did not come from volunteering group
Conclusion
This research aims to find out the motives to participate in voluntary activities. Volunteering allows an individual or group to connect to the community and make it a better place. Volunteering is a two-way street: It can benefit an individual and the family as much as the cause they choose to help. Dedicating time as a volunteer helps make new friends, expand the network, and boost social skills. In 2013, Volunteering Australia defined volunteering as the “time willingly given for the common good and without financial gain”. There are researches focused on their motivation to participate in voluntary activities, intentions and benefits as well Quantitative analysis in this study gave an overview of these groups demographics characteristics and the significant determinants that influence the target group’s motive to volunteer. The current study empirically confirmed that various determinants of motivation variables significantly influence to participate in voluntary activities, and value/understanding being the most significant determinant of motivation to participate in voluntary activities. The findings also shows that motivations does not differ in age or gender. Despite the age difference and different gender, one might have the same motivation to participate in voluntary activities. Thus, the study shows that the value/understanding are the most important motivations to participate in voluntary activities. These results have clear practical implications. Being aware of motivational agendas can be useful when designing recruitment tailored to the profile of the volunteers a group wants to attract, matching the message to the motivation of the recipents (Omoto, Snyder and Martino, 2000). But the most interesting finding of the present study is that within the age groups, the two motives that were rated as most important were value/understanding and enhancement/career motivations. Thus, regardless of age , if one wer going to develop persuasive messages for volunteering, it seems that the emphasis would be on the value and understanding themes. Based upon on the results of the present study, it does not appear to be case that motivations appeals to respondents of different age would need to vary in the themes. This study also showed  that women are more likely to be motivated to participated in voluntary activities than men. Although, the sample of this study is small, the results show that that the younger age group were more likely to volunteer on the basis of enhancement/career and social/protective motivations than the older group.
Finally, this study shows that volunteerism can be an activity that permits to satisfy very different motives. The motivations of the people can change with the passing of time, but volunteerism can fill these changes.

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