NUR251 Assessment

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Weerachandra Erandi_S232212_NUR251 S2 2019 Assessment 1
NUR251 Assessment 1 S2 2019
Assignment template
Task 1
Firstly, a nurse may conduct a focused physical examination for the consenting AKI patient. This
should include a head to toe assessment, baseline observation such as vital signs using a systemic
approach, heart and lung sounds, skin assessment including temperature and a neurological
assessment to monitor level of consciousness (LeMone et al., 2017, p 894 ). Conduct a PQRST pain
assessment (LeMone et al., 2017, p 172). For an AKI patient, vital signs may be conducted every
4 hours as reduced kidney function, fluid and electrolyte imbalances effects multisystem and can
lead to life-threatening conditions (LeMone et al., 2017, p 894 ). Record findings in patient’s ADDS
chart, Braden scale, bowel chart, cognitive and delirium chart and other appropriate charts as per
ward policy. A nurse must take appropriate actions as necessary indicated by facility policies.
Second assessment a nurse may conduct for David is a focused cardiovascular assessment.
Cardiovascular assessment includes heart sounds, palpate peripheral pulses, capillary refill time
(Elder, Japp, & Verghese, 2016). Assess David’s blood pressure as well as postural blood pressure,
a drop of 20 mmHg from supine BP may indicate orthostatic hypotension commonly associated
with renal patients and diuretic treatments (Cheung, Soman, & Tamura, 2011:Tiziani, 2013 p 462).
Hyperkalaemia is one of the most severe complications in oliguric AKI due to hypervolemia, excess
intercellular fluids may cause life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias (Depret.et al, 2019) a nurse may
conduct a 12 lead ECG to monitor for peaked T waves, widening of the QRS complex, and STsegment depression in suspected hypervolemic patients (Depret.et al, 2019 ).
Lastly, a focused renal and urinary assessment will help ensure issues relating to the renal system
is recognised and managed to address and prevent any further damage to kidneys ((Wang, Jiang,
Zhu, Wen, & Xi, 2015: Fulop et al., 2010). Assess fluid balance hourly using a fluid balance chart
(LeMone et al., 2017, p 895 ). Monitory and document patients weight, in an oliguric patient
weight gain, is considered an accurate indicator of fluid retention (LeMone et al., 2017, p 894 ).
Monitor abdominal girth for, as excessive fluid retention as it may develop into heart failure and
pulmonary oedema which may cause adverse outcomes for the patient of not managed (Wang,
Jiang, Zhu, Wen, & Xi, 2015). Conduct a Urinalysis, look for amount, colour, clarity, smell, foul smell
of urine indicate infection (LeMone et al., 2017, p 894 ).
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Weerachandra Erandi_S232212_NUR251 S2 2019 Assessment 1
Task 2
Nursing Care Plan: David Smith
Nursing problem: Acute Pain
Related to: Acute kidney injury, infection in kidneys and leg Venus ulcer, inflammation of kidneys
Goal of care
Nursing interventions
Rationale
Evaluation
Maintain David’s pain at a
comfortable level
• Regularly asses David’s pain using
PQRST pain scale or recognised pain
scale.
• Administer pain analgesia as
prescribed to manage breakthrough
pain, the onset of pain and reassess
after to see if pain management is
achieved.
• Reposition David to obtain maximum
comfort levels (LeMone et al., 2017,
p 860).
• Encourage and educate the patient to
verbalise and report pain before and
after pain management strategies.
• Visualise patient for pain, look for
facial expressions such as grimace and
constant movement.
To be pain-free is recognised as a human
right (International Association for the
Study of Pain. 2018).
Assessment of pain is the most important
step for adequate pain management as
Inadequate pain management can lead to
adverse physical and psychological
outcomes (Carr et al., 2014).
Glowacki (2015) states pain education
itself may be the most effective treatment
a health professional can provide as it
reduces patient distress, and reaction to
therapy and reduce the number of signs
and symptoms, the author also states that
education should be focused n what is
expected and what kind of treatment
options are available to the patient
David verbalises no pain throughout the shift.
David is compliant with pain management
pharmacological and non-pharmacological.
David appears comfortable.
David’s pain score remains below 2/10
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Weerachandra Erandi_S232212_NUR251 S2 2019 Assessment 1
Nursing problem: Risk of fluid imbalance
Related to: compromised kidney function and regulatory mechanism., treatment regime
Goal of care
Nursing interventions
Rationale
Evaluation
Maintain David’s fluid
volume at a functional
level.
Obtain a normal urine
output
Decrease progression of
oedema,
• Commence prescribed IV therapy and
frusemide as soon as possible.
• Check daily weigh to identify fluid
retention by weight gain, document in
weight chart.
• Observe signs of peripheral oedema
and an increase in abdominal girth.
• Maintain fluid balance chart including
iv fluids, commence fluid restriction as
advised.
• Palpate neck vein for distention,
• Auscultate heart and lung sounds for
crackles and effort extra heart sounds
and pulmonary congestion
• Place patient in modified
Trendelenburg position
Early fluid restriction and fluid balance
monitoring is a fundamental step in
stabilising patients with Acute kidney
injury (Wang, Jiang, Zhu, Wen, & Xi, 2015)
Conducting daily weights are crucial to
understanding fluid accumulation as well
as Fluid balance documentation (Wang,
Jiang, Zhu, Wen, & Xi, 2015
Recognising clinical deterioration and
taking effective action to minimise
occurrences of adverse clinic-al outcomes
(Australian Commission on Safety and
Quality in Health Care, 2017).
Elevating legs for more 30 minutes a day
may act as a protective measurement of
leg ulcers (Finlayson, Wu, & Edwards.
(2015)
Patients vital signs will be within normal
parameters.
The patient has a stable weight
The patient will have a normal output and sins
of oedema will decrease return no normal skin
turgor.
The patient will have normal breath and heart
sounds and clear of any fluid in the lungs.
Patient shows signs improvement in urinary
output post Frusemide administration,
Patients laboratory values are normal, and
patient is euvolemic.
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Weerachandra Erandi_S232212_NUR251 S2 2019 Assessment 1
Nursing problem: Risk of infection
Related to: Peripheral intravenous sites, wound in leg, risk of hospitalisation infection, immune compromise, Compromised circulation, pyelonephritis and oedema.
Goal of care
Nursing interventions
Rationale
Evaluation
For David to be free from
infection and remain free
from infection
• Maintain hand hygiene throughout the
shift
• Use non-touch a septic technique for
wound dressing,
• Educate David about hand washing
and infection control
• Monitor IVC sites for signs of
infections
• Conduct a urinalysis and check urine
for signs and symptoms of infection
(clarity, odour).
• Send an MSU as requested to check
for infections and drive antibiotic
treatment
• Monitor wound for signs of infections
Maintaining and appropriate care of IVC
site is an essential step in preventing
catheter-related infections (Loveday,
Wilson, Prieto, & Wilcox. (2016
A urinary dipstick can indicate the
presence of urinary tract infections (Jarvis,
Chan, & Gottlieb, 2014,
A consistent approach to infection control
is required to provide safe, effective care
patient education is imperative to
adherence to infection control methods
(Burnett, (2018).
David’s vital signs are within normal
parameters, and signs of infections are absent.
David’s body temperature is within normal
ranges.
David’s leg ulcer is healing well.
The patient remains infection free throughout
the hospital stay.
Nursing problem: Anxiety
Related to: health status, dysuria, hospital environment, diminished productivity, financial situations, fear
Goal of care
Nursing interventions
Rationale
Evaluation
• Assess patients’ level of anxiety
Involvement of family into patient care
significantly lowers patient’s anxiety levels
The patient is calm and appears less anxious.
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Weerachandra Erandi_S232212_NUR251 S2 2019 Assessment 1
For David to be calm and
show no signs of distress
or anxiety
• Reassure patient and build rapport.
Use therapeutic communications and
touch with permission. Encourage
expression of needs and concerns and
encourage questions.
• Ask the patient how he usually
manages anxiety and coping
strategies.
• Liaise with ward psychologist and
doctor about David’s anxiety and
management.
• Arrange a visit from daughter to ease
feeling o anxiety.
• Educate patient and family about
anxiety and management
and improves health outcomes Mackie,
Mitchell, & Marshall. (2018
Compassionate and competent nursing
care has shown to reduce anxiety and fear
in hospital settings (Wagley & Newton.
(2010)
Treating anxiety and depression as the first
step in pain management can delay
analgesia and avoid opioid analgesia
misuse (Van der Feltz-Cornelis, De Heer, &
Van Eck van der Sluijs, 2013)
The patient has good communication with the
nurse and family.
The patient can manage the onset of anxieties
Clinical psychologist review planned and
effective
Nursing problem: Impaired skin integrity
Related to venous leg ulcer. Oedema, lack of mobilisation due to illness,
Goal of care
Nursing interventions
Rationale
Evaluation
To maintain optimal skin
integrity and there is no
signs of visible
breakdown of skin.
Maintain clean and
epithelising leg ulcer
wound site and wound
dressing
• Conduct a skin assessment including a
Pressure injury assessment using
Braden scale
• Attend wound care for leg ulcer
• Don graduated compression stockings
to prevent DVT prophylaxis
All skincare interventions should be based
on an accurate skin assessment (Kottner, &
Surber, 2016)
Studies reveal graduated compression
stockings reduced the risk of DVT
(Sachdeva, Dalton, & Lees, 2018,
David maintains good skin integrity and no signs
of pressure areas.
David pitting oedema is decreasing.
David is independent with reducing pressure
areas and shows understanding about
maintaining skin integrity.
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Weerachandra Erandi_S232212_NUR251 S2 2019 Assessment 1
• Turn patient to prevent constant
pressure areas.
• Place the patient in a modified
Trendelenburg position to reduce
oedema
• Educate parent to reposition often to
reduce pressure ulcers
• Provide an appropriate mattress for
patients at risk of pressure ulcers.
Adequate mattress, nutrition, two-hourly
turnings, family and patient education, is
vital in the prevention of pressure injuries
(Latimer et al. 2018).
Oedema escalates pressure areas as excess
fluids decrease oxygen and blood flow to
tissues (Agrawal & Chauhan, 2012).
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Weerachandra Erandi_S232212_NUR251 S2 2019 Assessment 1
Task 3
Obesity-associated hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidaemia may increase the progression of
CKD, therefore weight management, and reducing BMI is vital to lowering comorbidities.
Patients with CKD and obesity require education on managing weight and lifestyle factors such
as alcohol intake and adequate nutrition to address further kidney damage. Diet and exercise
towards lowering BMI were found to slow down the progressing of comorbidities, such as
hypertension and hyperlipidaemia (Hall et al., 2014). It is recommended David consumes a
balanced diet that is low in salt daily, which will help reduce blood pressure (kidney Australia,
2019). Studies show that regular aerobic and resistance training improves insulin action and
can help minimize diabetes-related health conditions (Lebrun, 2011). For a CKD patient, normal
blood pressure levels should be below 140/90 mmHg (Nicholas, Vaziri & Norris, 2013).
Encourage home blood pressure monitoring, where appropriate and self-checking blood sugar
levels. Kidney health Australia (2019) recommends a minimum of 30 minutes of physical
activity per day.
Medication management to avoid nephrotoxic is vital after an episode of AKI as the kidneys
regain its function. It is recommended that patients avoid over the counter medications such as
NSAID’s for 1 year following an AKI (LeMone et al., 2017 p 895). Polypharmacy is common
amongst elderly patients with multiple comorbidities (Nobili, Garattini & Mannucci,2011).
David should be provided with adequate education on how to manage his medication at home
and to avoid drug-related adverse reactions. Dalwani et al. (2017) found polypharmacy may
increase the risk of falls by 21% in older adults. Polypharmacy increases the progression of CKD
and leads to adverse health outcomes (Wastesson, Morin, Tan, & Johnell, 2018. Excessive
alcohol intake can lead to hypertension, increase the risk of heart disease and increase kidney
disease. Alcohol can also increase drug reactions and nephrotoxicity (LeMone et al., 2017, p
895). David should be advised to refrain from alcohol, the current recommended alcohol limit is
2 standard drinks per day (kidney health Australia (2019).
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Weerachandra Erandi_S232212_NUR251 S2 2019 Assessment 1
Task 4
1400 Nursing AM
Patient received at 0700
David is a 72-year-old man from Darwin, presented to ward with AKI secondary to
Pyelonephritis. Has a history of hypertension, chronic kidney disease and type 2 diabetes
myelitis, hyperlipidaemia and anxiety. David has no known allergies. Slight hypertensive, at
150/70, all other vital signs are within normal parameters, ECG conducted, no abnormalities
detected. Glasco Coma scale, 15/15. Pitting oedema both calf’s, ted stoking applied and
monitored for skin integrity, Acumax mattress provided to prevent pressure areas. David has a
wound on the left leg (Venus ulcer) delayed healing, referred to wound care nurse, dressing
changed ++ exudate. Medication administered as charted, the patient maintained a pain score
of 2/10 throughout the shift. Patient continent of bowel and bladder, emptying urine into the
bottle for measurement and compliant. Fluid Balance chart updated, Diuresis since the
administration of fluids, patient aware this is normal for the recovery phase of AKI. Mid-Stream
Urine collected and sent to the lab. Continue fluid restriction as ordered, tolerating diabetic
diet. ADLs attended; the patient required assistance with showering due to the risk of falls.
Referral to psychologist re anxiety. Slightly anxious at the start of the shift, David seemed calm
following daughters visit. BGL 5.0 before lunch, David was given education material about UTI,
CKD, alcohol intake and a healthy lifestyle to manage multiple comorbidities. Awaiting review
from the medical team. All documents updated. Patient is compliant with treatment,
communicates well. Education provided on CKD management, Alcohol intake and kidneys and
how to manage multiple medications on discharge, patient verbalises no concerns, nil other
issues at the time of report.______________________________EW, Erandi Weerachandra, RN.
Key
AKI – Acute kidney injury
CKD- Chronic kidney disease
UTI – urinary tract infection
FBC- Fluid balance chart
Hx- history
ADL – assisted daily living
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Weerachandra Erandi_S232212_NUR251 S2 2019 Assessment 1
References
Agrawal, K., & Chauhan, N. (2012). Pressure ulcers: Back to the basics. Indian journal of plastic surgery :
official publication of the Association of Plastic Surgeons of India, 45(2), 244–254.
doi:10.4103/0970-0358.101287
Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care. (2017). essential elements for recognising
& responding to acute physiological deterioration. Retrieved from
https://www.safetyandquality.gov.au/sites/default/files/migrated/National-ConsensusStatement-clinical-deterioration_2017.pdf
Burnett, E. (2018). Effective infection prevention and control: The nurse’s role. Nursing Standard
(2014), 33(4), 68-72.
Carr, E., Meredith, P., Chumbley, G., Killen, R., Prytherch, D., & Smith, G. (2014). Pain: A quality of care
issue during patients’ admission to hospital. 70(6), 1391-1404.
Cheung, K. L., Soman, S., & Tamura, M. K. (2011). Special considerations in the management of chronic
kidney disease in the elderly. Dialysis & Transplantation, 40(6), 241-243. doi:10.1002/dat.20571
Depret, F., Peacock, W. F., Liu, K. D., Rafique, Z., Rossignol, P., & Legrand, M. (2019). Management of
hyperkalemia in the acutely ill patient. Annals of intensive care, 9(1), 32. doi:10.1186/s13613-
019-0509-8
Dhalwani, N. N., Fahami, R., Sathanapally, H., Seidu, S., Davies, M. J., & Khunti, K. (2017). Association
between polypharmacy and falls in older adults: a longitudinal study from England. BMJ
open, 7(10), e016358. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2017-016358
Elder, A., Japp, A., & Verghese, A. (2016). How valuable is physical examination of the cardiovascular
system? BMJ, 354. doi:10.1136/bmj.i3309
Finlayson, Wu, & Edwards. (2015). Identifying risk factors and protective factors for venous leg ulcer
recurrence using a theoretical approach: A longitudinal study. International Journal of Nursing
Studies, 52(6), 1042-1051.
Fulop, T., Pathak, M. B., Schmidt, D. W., Lengvarszky, Z., Juncos, J. P., Lebrun, C. J., … Juncos, L. A. (2010).
Volume-Related Weight Gain and Subsequent Mortality in Acute Renal Failure Patients Treated
With Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy. ASAIO Journal, 56(4), 333-337.
doi:10.1097/mat.0b013e3181de35e4
Glowacki, D. (2015). Effective Pain Management and Improvements in Patients’ Outcomes and
Satisfaction. Critical Care Nurse, 35(3), 33-41. doi:10.4037/ccn2015440
Hall, M. E., do Carmo, J. M., da Silva, A. A., Juncos, L. A., Wang, Z., & Hall, J. E. (2014). Obesity,
hypertension, and chronic kidney disease. International journal of nephrology and renovascular
disease, 7, 75–88. doi:10.2147/IJNRD.S39739
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International Association for the Study of Pain. (2018). Declaration that access to pain management is a
fundamental human right, declaration of Montreal. Retrieved from https://www.iasppain.org/DeclarationofMontreal?navItemNumber=582
Jarvis, T., Chan, L., & Gottlieb, T. (2014). Assessment and management of lower urinary tract infection in
adults. Australian Prescriber, 37(1), 7-9. doi:10.18773/austprescr.2014.002
Kidney Health Australia. (2019). https://kidney.org.au/your-kidneys/prevent/keeping-your-kidneyshealthy. Retrieved from https://kidney.org.au/your-kidneys/prevent/keeping-your-kidneyshealthy
Kottner, & Surber. (2016). Skin care in nursing: A critical discussion of nursing practice and
research. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 61, 20-28.
Lebrun, C. (2011). Exercise and Type 2 Diabetes: American College of Sports Medicine and the American
Diabetes Association: Joint Position Statement. Yearbook of Sports Medicine, 2011, 162-163.
doi:10.1016/j.yspm.2011.03.038
Latimer, Sharon, Chaboyer, Wendy, & Gillespie, Brigid M. (2018). Inviting patients to participate in their
pressure injury care: The next step in prevention. DeepesTissues: Wounds Australia
Newsletter, (Jun 2018), 19-22.
LeMone, P., Burke, K., Bauldoff, G., Gubrud-Howe, P., Dwyer, T., Moxham, L., Reird-Searl, K., Berry, K.,
Carville, K., Hales, M., Knox, N., Raymond, D., & Levett- Jones, T. (2017). Medical-Surgical
Nursing Volumes 1-3: Critical Thinking for Person-Centred Care (3rd ed.). Pearson. Chapter 27,
Nursing care of people with kidney disorders, pp 885-916.
LeMone et.al. (2017). Medical-surgical nursing critical thinking for person-centered care, (3rd ed.)
Australia: Pearson . Chapter 8, Nursing care of people in pain, pp. 172.
Loveday, H., Wilson, J., Prieto, J., & Wilcox, M. (2016). epic3: revised recommendation for
intravenous catheter and catheter site care. Journal of Hospital Infection, 92(4), 346-348.
doi:10.1016/j.jhin.2015.11.011
Mackie, B. R., Mitchell, M., & Marshall, P. A. (2018). The impact of interventions that promote family
involvement in care on adult acute-care wards: An integrative review. Collegian, 25(1), 131-140.
doi:10.1016/j.colegn.2017.01.006
Nicholas, S. B., Vaziri, N. D., & Norris, K. C. (2013). What should be the blood pressure target for patients
with chronic kidney disease?. Current opinion in cardiology, 28(4), 439–445.
doi:10.1097/HCO.0b013e32836208c2
Nobili, A., Garattini, S., & Mannucci, P. M. (2011). Multiple diseases and polypharmacy in the elderly:
challenges for the internist of the third millennium. Journal of comorbidity, 1, 28–44.
Sachdeva, A., Dalton, M., & Lees, T. (2018). Graduated compression stockings for prevention of deep
vein thrombosis. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.
doi:10.1002/14651858.cd001484.pub4
Tiziani, A. P. (2013). Dieuritics. In Havard’s Nursing Guide to Drugs. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Health
Sciences.
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Weerachandra Erandi_S232212_NUR251 S2 2019 Assessment 1
Van der Feltz-Cornelis, C., De Heer, E., & Van Eck van der Sluijs, J. (2013). A medication treatment
algorithm for chronic pain with comorbid depression or anxiety disorder, based on the WHO
pain ladder. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 74(6), 559.
doi:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2013.03.082
Wagley, & Newton. (2010). Emergency Nurses’ Use of Psychosocial Nursing Interventions for
Management of ED Patient Fear and Anxiety. Journal of Emergency Nursing, 36(5), 415-419.
Wang, N., Jiang, L., Zhu, B., Wen, Y., & Xi, X. (2015). Fluid balance and mortality in critically ill patients
with acute kidney injury: a multicenter prospective epidemiological study. Critical Care, 19(1).
doi:10.1186/s13054-015-1085-4
Wastesson, J. W., Morin, L., Tan, E. C., & Johnell, K. (2018). An update on the clinical consequences of
polypharmacy in older adults: a narrative review. Expert Opinion on Drug Safety, 17(12), 1185-
1196. doi:10.1080/14740338.2018.1546841
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Weerachandra Erandi_S232212_NUR251 S2 2019 Assessment 1
NUR251 Assessment 1. Marking Rubric
Needs development
Satisfactory
Excellent
Tasks 1, 3 and 4
– Assessing
– Patient education
– Documentation
(15)
0 – 5 marks
Demonstrates a limited knowledge of assessment,
documentation and patient education.
Does not demonstrate safe practice, knowledge of
the relevant assessments and/or explain their
relevance to renal function.
Unsatisfactory rationales or explanations for care
planning and assessments and/ or limited ability
to explain and justify nursing actions and
education including use of medications.
Documentation is not comprehensive and/or
does not meet legal requirements.
5 – 10 marks
Demonstrates satisfactory knowledge of
assessment, documentation and patient
education.
Rationales demonstrate satisfactory ability to
conduct the relevant assessments and explain
their relevance to renal function.
Demonstrates a satisfactory ability to provide
relevant and comprehensive patient education
including use of medications.
Documentation is clear, succinct and meets most
legal requirements, with errors.
10 – 15 marks
Demonstrates excellent safe practice knowledge for
assessment, documentation and patient education.
Explains clearly, succinctly and specifically how to
conduct the relevant assessments and explains their
relevance to renal function.
Demonstrates a high level ability to provide relevant
and comprehensive patient education including use of
medications.
Documentation is clear, succinct and meets legal
requirements.
Task 2 – Planning care
(15)
0 – 5 marks
Poor interpretation of task or
Limited or little ability to develop individualised,
comprehensive nursing care relevant to the case
study and nursing problem and/or limited to no
critical thinking demonstrated in planning and
evaluating nursing care.
5 – 10 marks
Demonstrates satisfactory ability and/or
developing critical thinking ability to develop
individualised, comprehensive nursing care
relevant to the case study and nursing problem,
including evaluating nursing care.
8 – 15 nursing actions/interventions identified.
10 – 15 marks
Demonstrates high level ability and critical thinking to
develop individualised, comprehensive nursing care
relevant to the case study, nursing problem, and
evaluating nursing care.
More than 15 actions/interventions identified.
All interventions are within the scope of the registered
nurse and relevant to the patient scenario.
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Weerachandra Erandi_S232212_NUR251 S2 2019 Assessment 1
Less than 7 nursing actions/ interventions
identified and/or
Nursing actions are not within the scope of a
registered nurse.
No evidence to support rationales for care.
Most interventions are within the scope of the
registered nurse.
Rationales are referenced and demonstrate
satisfactory ability to explain or justify each
nursing action.
All rationales are referenced and demonstrate high
level ability to explain or justify each nursing action.
Academic Integrity –
referencing &
Evidence for practice –
research (5)
0 – 2 marks
Demonstrates little or limited ability to
acknowledge the work of others.
No or limited in-text citations and/or incomplete
reference list and/or inaccurate and/or
inconsistent referencing format.
Significant use of direct quotes (<5)
Academic integrity standards not met.
Less than 7 peer reviewed journals and/or
More than 2 current text books cited.
Some journals or texts are more than 10 years old.
Numerous inappropriate resources in reference
list.
3 – 4 marks
Demonstrates a satisfactory ability to
acknowledge the work of others. Most ideas
supported with appropriate in-text citations and
there is a complete reference list. Some minor
inconsistencies, in CDU APA 6th format.
Academic integrity policies and standards at a
satisfactory level.
7 – 10 relevant peer reviewed journals.
No more than 2 current text books cited.
Journal articles and textbooks are no more than
10 years old.
May have occasional inappropriate resources in
reference list.
5 marks
Demonstrates high level ability to acknowledge the
work of others. All ideas supported with appropriate
and accurate in-text citations and there is a complete
and accurate reference list.
No errors detected in CDU APA 6th format. Academic
integrity standards met at a high level.
Minimum of 10 peer reviewed journals.
No more than 2 current text books cited.
Journal articles and textbooks are no more than 10
years old.
No inappropriate resources in reference list.
Presentation &
Academic Writing (5)
0 – 2 marks
Presentation guidelines met.
3 – 4 marks
Presentation guidelines met with errors.
5 marks
Presentation guidelines met with no errors.

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