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Questions To Be Answered with SPSS Output Data Analysis in APA Format

Question 1 Background

Wong, Cooper, and Burke (2018) wanted to examine whether an 8-week wellness program would reduce worry in a sample of tertiary education students. This wellness program was comprised of a combined mindfulness-based intervention and an aerobic exercise-training intervention. To this end, the researchers recruited a sample of 304 tertiary education students from a variety of disciplines and randomly allocated them to one of four groups (N = 76 per group):

Combined training

Mindfulness alone

Exercise alone

A waitlist control

Worry was measured using the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ), which measures the generality, excessiveness, and uncontrollability and an individuals’ disposition to worry. It gives a total score ranging from 16 to 80, where higher scores indicate greater worry. Measurements of worry were only obtained at post-test, making this a randomized post-test-only control group study. The researchers hypothesized that individuals in the combined training group would report:

Lower worry compared to the wait list control

Lower worry compared to mindfulness alone and exercise alone.

As such, they were interested in two specific comparisons:

Combined training vs. wait list control

Combined training vs. mindfulness alone and exercise alone.

Q1. A

Perform a one-way between-group ANOVA on -test scores. Follow this up with two planned contrasts that evaluate the researcher’s two specific hypotheses. You may be required to perform a multiple comparison adjustment to maintain familywise error at alpha = .05. This will depend on whether this set of contrasts is orthogonal (hint: this set of contrasts is orthogonal if the product of their coefficients sums to zero).

If a multiple comparison adjustment is required, use the Bonferroni method to maintain the familywise error rate at alpha = .05. Write up your results, as well as your interpretations and conclusions based on the results. Also ensure that you address what your assumptions were and whether they were satisfied (begin with checking for outliers, and there are also 2 testable assumptions in the one-way between-groups ANOVA), what statistical tests were performed, and what was the direction and magnitude of the effect(s).

Please include tables of statistics where relevant, plot(s) of result where relevant, and write up all your results in APA format. Include snippets of relevant SPSS outputs in your appendix (including plots of assumption checks, where relevant).

Note: Because the method of performing contrasts discussed in lectures does not give a confidence interval, you will not be required to interpret the confidence interval for this question only.

Note 2: When testing the author’s second hypothesis, there is an additional step required to ensure that the contrast estimate you obtain (i.e., the difference between the two means you are comparing) is on the same scale as the original means. To do this, your positive contrast coefficients must sum to 1, and your negative contrast coefficients must sum to -1. This means that, in addition to the sum of your contrast vector equaling zero, the sum of the absolute values of your contrast vector (i.e., ignoring negative signs) should equal 2. As such, some of your contrast coefficients values will need to be fractional numbers (e.g., -0.5).

Question 2 Background

Bradshaw and Jones (2017) wanted to evaluate the effectiveness of an 8-week mindfulness-based intervention for reducing chronic stress among individuals currently experiencing severe work stress. To this end, the researchers recruited a sample of 166 full-time workers who were referred into the program by their company doctor because of work-related stress complaints. These individuals were randomly allocated into one of two groups:

A mindfulness-based intervention (N = 83)

A waitlist control (N = 83)

Stress was measured using the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10), which gives a total score ranging from 0 to 40 (higher scores indicate higher perceived stress). This measure was assessed at two time points: one week prior to the intervention (pre-test) and one week following completion of the intervention (posttest).

Demographic variables were also assessed at baseline, including age and sex. The researchers were specifically interested in whether the mindfulness-based intervention would be effective in reducing chronic stress. The authors hypothesized that individuals in the mindfulness-based intervention would report lower chronic stress when compared to the control group.

Q2. A There was attrition in Bradshaw and Jones’ (2017) study in both the mindfulness group and in the waitlist control group. Perform a missing values analysis for each group, separately (using all available variables) to determine the mechanism of missingness of test data in each group.

This will require you to select cases based on group membership and run a missing values analysis twice. In your write-up, identify how much data is missing in each group separately, and outline the steps required to determine how best to proceed with data analysis based on the mechanism of missingness.

Justify your decision using published journal articles (e.g., Jakobsen et al., 2017; please note it is not appropriate to cite the lecture slides or lecturer, but you may make use of the citations discussed in the lectures) and write up your report in correct APA format. Include snippets of relevant SPSS outputs in your appendix.

Note: You can select cases based on group membership to perform these analyses one at a time by going to Data Select Cases and using the “If condition is satisfied” module. You can specify that group variable can equal 1 or 2 to select cases for each group one at a time.

Q2. B Perform a complete-case analysis (i.e., all participants with missing data are excluded from the analysis) of Bradshaw and Jones’ (2017) study using a 2 (Group: Mindfulness-based intervention vs. Control) by 2 (Time: Pre-test vs. Posttest) between-within (mixed) ANOVA.

Follow this up with a contrast of the interaction (i.e., the difference between posttest and pre-test change scores) to determine what effect participation in the mindfulness-based intervention has on chronic stress (you will need to compute test minus pre-test change scores in SPSS as a new variable for this).

You should perform this interaction contrast regardless of whether the interaction is significant to determine the magnitude of the effect of the mindfulness-based intervention on stress. Write up your results as well as your interpretations and conclusions based on the results.

Also ensure that you address what your assumptions were and whether they were satisfied (begin with checking for outliers, and there are also 3 testable assumptions in the mixed ANOVA), what statistical tests were performed, and what was the direction and magnitude of the effect(s) including interpretation of the confidence interval (you may need to use the syntax given in the tutorial to compute the confidence interval).

Please include tables of statistics where relevant, plots of results, and write up all your results in APA format. Include snippets of relevant SPSS outputs in your appendix (including plots of assumption checks, if relevant).

Q2. C Perform a complete-case analysis (i.e., all participants with missing data are excluded from the analysis) of Bradshaw and Jones’ (2017) study.

However, these this time use a one-way between-group ANCOVA on -test scores, using the pre-test scores as a covariate in your analysis. Follow this up with a main effect contrast of the adjusted group means to determine what effect participation in the mindfulness based intervention has on chronic stress (ensure you interpret the confidence interval).

Also ensure that you address what your assumptions were and whether they were satisfied (begin with checking for outliers, and there are also five testable assumptions in ANCOVA), what statistical tests were performed, and what was the direction and magnitude of the effect(s) including interpretation of the confidence interval. Write up your results, as well as your interpretations and conclusions based on the results.

Please include tables of statistics where relevant, a plot of results (e.g., of the adjusted posttest means and their difference) and write up all your results in APA format. Include snippets of relevant SPSS outputs in your appendix (including plots of assumption checks, if relevant).

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