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During the last weeks, you have learned how machine learning algorithms can be implemented
using python. Scikit learn is an open-source python library that can help to implement supervised
and unsupervised machine learning models. More information can be obtained from the website
https://sklearn.org/. In this task, machine learning algorithms will be used for cyber attack
classification. The purpose of the task is to help students to build knowledge and skills related to
the usages of supervised machine learning for security analysis, hands-on implementation and
understand the overall goal of an end-to-end-project delivery in the area of cybersecurity analytics.
Do you know what is an end-to-end data science project? See the lifecycle of an end-to-end data
science project. If you are doing a data science application for security analysis, your problem will
be related to cybersecurity and your data analysis needs to follow the below steps. See the task
description for the detailed instructions.
Figure 1: Data Science Lifecycle [source: Sudeep, 2019 (accessed Jan 2020)]
In this Distinction/Higher Distinction Task, you will experiment with Machine Learning
classification algorithms. Please see more details in the Task description. Before attempting this
task, please make sure you are already up to date with all previous Credit and Pass tasks.
Suppose, you are working in an organization as a security analyst. You need to conduct an end
to end project on “cyber-attack classification in the network traffic database”. To complete the
project you follow the steps in Figure 1. Here, all of the steps are already solved for you (by
the teaching team and you don’t need to take any action) except step 6 and 7. You need to
complete these sections (highlighted in blue) by yourself to submit this task.
Step 1: Business Understanding (Problem Definitions)
Your aim is to develop a multi-class machine learning-based classification model to identify
different network traffic classes for TWO BENCHMARK DATASETS.
Step 2: Data Gathering (Identify the source of data)
In the industry/real-world, you need to communicate either with your manager, client, other
stakeholders and/or IT team to understand the source of data and to gather it.
Here, the teaching team already gathered data for you. You can access the dataset from
the given github link.
In this task, you need to perform experiments on TWO DATASETS.
1. The first dataset “NSL-KDD” can be obtained from the data folder, go to the
2. The second dataset is “Processed Combined IoT dataset”
If you are interested to learn more about the datasets, please visit the websites/links below
(not mandatory for the HD task).
Datset 1 descriptiom https://www.unb.ca/cic/datasets/nsl.html
Datset 2 descriptiom https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=9189760
***One starting example code for the 5 class classification (Dataset 1) is also given
for your convenience, where some of the steps are already implemented. Please see
the “SIT719_Prac05_Task02_HD_task_sample_done” notebook file (obtain from the
github link) for Dataset 1 (NSL KDD).
***Another starting example code for the second dataset (TON IoT) is also given
where the data has been preprocessed for you. See the link
Step 3: Data Cleaning (Filtering anomalous data)
In a typical analysis, you may need to take care of missing values and inconsistent data. In
week 2, you have learnt how to deal with missing values and manipulate a database. Here,
it has already been taken care of for this dataset (so no action is needed for this
Step 4: Data Exploration (Understanding the data)
Some examples of data exploration are “Identification of the attribute names (Header),
Checking the length of the Train and Test dataset, Checking the total number of samples
that belong to each of the five classes of the training dataset”, etc. You don’t need to do
anything here. However, these actions will help you to understand the data better in
Step 5: Feature Engineering (Select Important Feature)
In a typical setup, you may need to do feature extraction or selection during your data
analysis process. Here, relevant feature engineering is already done for you in the sample
code. So, no action is needed for this task
Step 6: Predictive Modelling (Prediction of the classes) – This is the task for you.
The DecisionTreeClassifier has been implemented for you. Now, you need to implement
other techniques and compare. Please do the following tasks:
1. Implement at least 5 benchmark classification algorithms.
2. Tune the parameters if applicable to obtain a good solution.
3. Obtain the confusion matrix for each of the scenarios (Use the test dataset).
4. Calculate the performance measures for the each of the classification algorithms that
includes Precision (%), Recall (%), F-Score (%), False Alarm- FPR (%)
You need to compare the results following the table below. Create one table for each
algorithm (Use the test dataset)..
Finally, you summarize the results similar to the below table (Use the test dataset).:
A sample Random Forest implementation is given to you. Repeat the procedure as
mentioned in datset 1. The only difference will be “you need to consider 70:30 train-test split
(70% for train and 30% for test)” for testing as there is no separate test set file. Please note,
k-fold cross validation is also acceptable. However, as k-fold cross validation will take a
huge amount of time, we have not made it mandatory.
Comparison of Results:
Your results need to be comparable against benchmark algorithms. For example, see the
below results obtained from a recent article “An Adaptive Ensemble Machine Learning
Model for Intrusion Detection” published in IEEE ACCESS, July 2019 for Dataset 1
For Dataset 2, please see the article “TON_IoT Telemetry Dataset: A New Generation
Dataset of IoT and IIoT for Data-Driven Intrusion Detection Systems” for Dataset 2.
It will not be exactly same and nothing to be worried about that. Your target will be to
select the best performing algorithms that you can and achieve a comparable results.
Step 7: Data Visualization
Perform the following tasks for both of the datasets:
1. Visualize and compare the accuracy of different algorithms.
2. Plot the confusion matrix for each scenarios.
Step 8: Results delivery:
Once you have completed the data analysis task for your security project, you need to
deliver the outcome. In real-world, results are typically delivered as a product/tool/web-app
or through a presentation or by submitting the report. However, in our unit we will
consider a report based submission only (PLEASE NOTE, the results obtained from
the above steps need to be submitted as a REPORT format rather than just a
Here, you need to write a report (at least 3500 word) based on the outcome and results
you obtained by performing the above steps. The report will describe the algorithms
used, their working principle, key parameters, and the results. Results should
consider all the key performance measures and comparative results in the form of
tables, graphs, etc.
Submit the PDF report through onTrack. You also need to submit – (i) the code file
and (ii) the word/source file of the REPORT separately (within the “Code for task 5.1”
folder) under the assignment tab of the CloudDeakin.
Please note, it is a graded task where you will receive some feedback and marks. Your
tutor/marker will assign you some marks based on the quality of your submission,
performance of your algorithms, selection and novelty in your algorithm, tuning and
understanding the algorithms, how well you have explained the results, your usage
of scientific language, authenticity of the claims and finally the aesthetic look of your
submission and reflection of the quality of your work from the tutor’s judgement. You
will receive the feedback based on the following marking rubric. The marker will judge how
you have performed in the following categories.
Fails to clearly relate
the report topic or is not
clearly defined and/or
the report lacks focus
The report is too broad in
scope (outside of the title
topic) and/or the report is
somewhat unclear and
needs to be developed
further. Focal point is not
throughout the report.
The report provides
adequate direction with
some degree of interest
for the reader. The report
states the position, and
maintains the focal point
of the analysis for the
The report provides
direction for the
discussion part of the
analysis that is engaging
and thought provoking,
The report clearly and
concisely states the
position, and consistently
maintain the focal point.
Demonstrates a lack of
of the topic. Analysis is
very superficial and
understanding of python
scripting. Analysis is
good and has addressed
all criteria. Comparative
Demonstrates good level
of understanding of
Algorithms are fine-tuned
and comprise good
level of understanding of
python scripting and
are fine-tuned with some
contains flaws. The
analysis is presented.
selection of algorithms.
novelty or hybridization or
report is also not clear.
Sufficient discussion is
Comparative results are
advanced and/or recent
presented using standard
results are presented
measures in a way that it
provides very clear and
meaningful insights of the
Report lacks logical
Report is somewhat
Report is adequately
Report is effectively
organized. Results are
organized. Ideas and
occasionally ideas from
arranged reasonably well
results are arranged
paragraph to paragraph
with a progression of
logically, flow smoothly,
ideas. Central position
may not flow well and/or
thought from paragraph
with a strong progression
is rarely evident from
connect to the central
to paragraph connecting
of thought from
paragraph to paragraph
position or be clear as a
to the central position of
paragraph to paragraph
and/or the report is
whole. May be missing a
the analysis. Includes
connecting to the central
position related to the
and/or components may
like visualization, table
analysis tasks. Includes
be less than complete.
and graphs. The report is
all required components
Discussion related to
well organized and easy
with supportive figures,
analysis result is
presented but not very
clear and insightful.
Report shows a below
style lacking in
elements of appropriate
Frequent errors in
Report shows an average
and/or casual writing
style using standard
English. Some errors in
Report shows above
average writing style (can
be considered good) and
clarity in writing using
standard English. Minor
errors in grammar,
Article is well written and
clear and standard
English characterized by
elements of a strong
writing style. Basically
free from grammar,
usage, and/or formatting.
usage, or formatting
Author has demonstrated
the use of scientific
Author has demonstrated
language and results are
advanced use of
scientific language and
results are well explained
Rubric adopted from: Denise Kreiger, Instructional Design and Technology Services, SC&I, Rutgers University,
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