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BPP School of Business and Technology
MSc Management
Project Management Essentials
Coursework Assessment Brief
Submission mode: Turnitin online access
1. General Assessment Guidance

Your summative assessment for this module is made up of this Coursework submission which
accounts for 100% of the marks
Please note late submissions will not be marked.
You are required to submit all elements of your assessment via Turnitin online access. Only
submissions made via the specified mode will be accepted and hard copies or any other digital
form of submissions (like via email or pen drive etc.) will not be accepted.
For coursework, the submission word limit is 5000 words. You must comply with the word count
guidelines. You may submit LESS than 5000 words but not more. Word Count guidelines can be
found on your programme home page and the coursework submission page.
Do not put your name or contact details anywhere on your submission. You should only put




your student registration number (SRN) which will ensure your submission is recognised in the
marking process.

A total of 100 marks are available for this module assessment, and you are required to achieve
minimum 50% to pass this module.
You are required to use only Harvard Referencing System in your submission. Any content which

is already published by other author(s) and is not referenced will be considered as a case of
plagiarism.

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read the rules and regulations regarding plagiarism and collusion in the GARs and MOPP which
are available on HUB in the Academic registry section (Found via Help&Support).

You should include a completed copy of the Assignment Cover sheet. Any submission without
this completed Assignment Cover sheet may be considered invalid and not marked.
2. Assessment Brief
This module is assessed through one graded element worth 100%. You must achieve at least
50% to pass this module.
For this assignment you have to build a Project Management Consultancy Report based on the
Smart City OS case study.
THE SMART CITY OS CASE STUDY
Hull’s journey to becoming a programmable city
Here’s how Hull is racing to become the UK’s first smart city.
For a city to become smart, it takes a combination of technologies and disciplines, seamlessly
integrated, with an understanding of how a huge number of customers – the population of your
city – with interact with it. In the UK, several cities are racing to become the nation’s smartest
city, from London to Manchester to the country’s current leader, Bristol.
Against those larger cities, Hull might seem like the underdog, but it’s been making considerable
in-roads over the past 12 months or so. In May last year, it was awarded £55,000 for smart
solutions to reduce traffic congestion. Later in the year, it started a more ambitious project – to
create a purpose-built, smart operating system (OS) for the city.
The project, Smart City OS is being delivered by Hull City Council, technology company Connexin
and Cisco. Connexin has been working with cities such as Newcastle Upon Tyne to deliver smart
city technologies, impacting on everything from lighting, mobility, security and waste.
“Developing Hull as a Smart City will give us the opportunity to work with public and private
sector partners to deliver real benefits to communities, businesses and visitors to Hull,” says
Councillor Daren Hale, Deputy Leader of Hull City Council.
The objectives
Hull has been quietly upgrading itself over the past five years. Its small size – with a population
of around 260,000 – has allowed it to make changes at a comparatively quick pace. This has
allowed Hull to become the UK’s first full-fibre city – it has the fastest broadband of anywhere in
the UK, according to broadband choices.
Hull City Council had already worked with Connexin on a long-range wide area network
(LoRaWAN), allowing for better business connectivity and the facility of Internet of Things
devices. Creating its own OS seemed the next logical step.
The aim of the project is to increase and enhance data sharing and decision-making, allowing the
Council to deliver more effective services across the board, from traffic management to health
and social care.
“The system pulls together information that currently sits within separate council computer
systems to enable city-wide management of the city’s public assets in real-time using state-ofthe-art technology, says Hale. “Residents will receive better information to make choices about
transport, traffic and parking. But this will be just the beginning of what is possible.”
Over the course of the project, it will drive new demand for a digitally skilled workforce, which
will then boost Hull’s economy. The Council is investing in skills for its young people as a result.
The methodology
The OS uses Connexin tech, built on Cisco Kinetic for Cities platform. It will pull together 12
separate council IT systems. Each system will process data from a variety of sources, including
city-wide sensors and Internet of Things devices. This data can be used to help facilitate various
services. Connexin, with its experience in implementing smart city solutions, is taking a five-step
process to the installation.
The first step is infrastructure: having the right level of area-wide connectivity to be able to
deliver smart city services. This is a combination of high-speed fibre networks and LoRaWAN
networks. Hull had a head start in this area – local telecoms company KCOM had invested £85m
in the city’s full-fibre network, and Connexin’s LoRaWAN was already in place.
Second is the installation of sensors across the city, to collect real-time data. This is where the 12
systems come in. Connexin’s Smart Bins is one of them. The others include the Siemens Stratos
platform for traffic management; the Bartec Auto ID system for managing waste; and the Datek
streetlighting system.
The Vaisala IceCast program will help to predict the weather and plan road maintenance. The
Teletrac Navman provides GPS technology, and the Citilogik system will monitor people
movement. Pitney Bowes is providing asset-management software for street furniture.
Elsewhere, Defra’s air-quality database, the Environment Agency’s flood monitoring platform,
Hydro-Logic flooding alert sensors and the Astun iShare GIS web mapping portal – provide the
rest of the data.
Stage three is the implementation of the platform and bringing all of the systems onto the OS.
This is expected to take around a year. This allows for stage four – gathering insights. Stage five
is about determining outcomes based on those insights.
“Our platform will enable Hull to become a “programmable city” and move from outdated siloed
service driven technologies to a central platform to improve service delivery, reduce costs and to
make the most of new technologies such as IoT, AI and machine learning algorithms,” says
Furqan Alamgir, Founder and CEO of Connexin.
Engaging the public and managing stakeholders
While the data will be used by Hull City Council to improve its services across the board, the aim
is to provide insights to businesses and the public too. As the systems are integrated with the
OS, they will be exposed to Hull’s business and private residents. This, it is hoped, will encourage
start-ups to create new technologies that the city can then pull into its Smart City OS.
“For us, it is not just about smart cities,” says Mike Kenworthy, assistant director of digital and
ICT for Hull City Council, who is managing the project. “We are looking at utilising IoT and data –
that we potentially collect from other sources as well – to find innovative approaches to any
problem.”
One of the biggest challenges for the project is managing the stakeholders, who are spread
across various departments within the council, plus other organisations such as Humberside Fire
and Rescue Service, and the University of Hull.
Hull City Council is taking a ‘one council’ approach to managing it all. People see the council as
‘the council’ not as a series of separate services. Constant engagement with stakeholders across
all service sectors is crucial.
The end result
Due to its size, strong digital infrastructure, and lessons learned from other smart city projects,
Hull City Council has been able to skip the pilot phase and roll out Smart City OS across the city.
This could potentially cause Hull to leap up the UK smart city league tables.
Hale and Kenworthy are confident that it will bring considerable economic benefits to the
region, making the city particularly attractive to tech firms. While the council has a lofty
ambition to make Hull the world’s smartest city, the objective is primarily to benefit the people
of the city. “We do not want to be a smart city because it is cool,” says Kenworthy. “We have to
be sure that what we are doing is for the benefit of the city.”
Source: Association of Project Management (APM)
Link: https://www.apm.org.uk/resources/find-a-resource/case-studies/case-study-smart-city-oshull-s-journey-to-becoming-a-programmable-city/- accessed 5/10/20
It is recommended that you should also conduct your own independent research to strengthen
your knowledge of this project.
END OF CASE STUDY
THE SMART CITY OS CONSULTANCY REPORT
In the role of a Project Consultant, you are required to develop a project report for the Smart City OS
project by leveraging on the techniques and concepts you have covered in the module.
The report has to include the following tasks:
 Task 1 – The Project Manager (12 Marks)
Critically discuss what skills the project manager of the Smart City OS project needs to develop
to be effective and reflect on possible actions the project manager of the Smart City OS project
should take to develop those skills. Support your arguments with academic literature and
references to other similar real projects.
 Task 2 – Problem Solving & Decision Making (12 Marks)
Identify relevant stakeholders and create a stakeholder influence map for the Smart City OS
project and discuss why these are the most critical stakeholders emerging from your analysis.
Afterwards, by leveraging on the academic literature and similar real projects, critically discuss
how you engage the stakeholders you have identified with the Smart City OS project.
 Task 3 – The Project Triangle (12 Marks)
Critically discuss the importance of the various project triangle parameters that will need to be
managed by the Smart City OS project manager over the course of the project, and how they
may inter-relate to each other. Discuss the impact of possible changes to this project. Support
your arguments with academic literature and references to other similar real projects.
 Task 4 – Managing Finances (12 Marks)
Provide advice to the project manager on what resources may be required for this project and
what could be an effective cost estimation technique for the Smart City OS project and explain
why. Support your arguments with academic literature and references to other similar real
projects.
 Task 5 – Risk Management within the Project (12 Marks)
Develop a risk analysis by constructing a risk register for the Smart City OS project. You should
identify at least ten risks that the Smart City OS project should be aware of by using the
appropriate categories (e.g., environmental, operational, financial, strategic, reputational,
compliance, etc…). For this analysis, an appropriate risk register format should be used.
 Task 6 – Conflicts and Negotiation (12 Marks)
Identify at least six conflicts that may arise when running the Smart City OS project and their
sources. Once you have identified those potential conflicts, critically discuss which actions can
be taken by the project manager to resolve them and suggest appropriate conflict management
and/or negotiation strategies to address these. Support your arguments with academic
literature and references to other similar real projects.
 Task 7 – Teamwork (12 Marks)
Critically discuss what the project manager can do to build a highly successful team for the Smart
City OS project. In particular, focus on the importance of how a diverse team can increase
project performance., Critically reflect on what actions the project manager can take to build a
diverse team for the Smart City OS project, and what are some of the challenges of working in
diverse teams.
 Presentation and Structure (10 Marks)
 Assessment Self-Evaluation (6 Marks)
You must self-evaluate each single task of your report by using the rubric provided in the
marking guide and attach it to your report. The template for this can be found in the marking
guide section.
Word count: 5000 words
Your report structure should include the following sections:
Cover page (University cover sheet)
Table of Contents
List of Abbreviations (if appropriate)
Introduction
Task 1 – The Project Manager
Task 2 – Problem Solving & Decision Making
Task 3 – The Project Triangle
Task 4 – Managing Finances
Task 5 – Risk Management within the Project
Task 6 – Conflicts and Negotiation
Task 7 – Teamwork
Concluding remarks
References
Assessment Self-Evaluation
Appendix (if appropriate)
Word count – only applies to the main body (shown in bold); i.e., cover page, table of content, list of
abbreviations, references, assessment self-evaluation and appendix are not part of the 5000-word
count.
If you have any further questions about this coursework assignment, please contact the module
leader or the tutor.
Tip for Mapping the Assessment towards Module Topics and Module
Learning Outcomes (LOs)
Assessment Task
Module Topic
Marks
Module LOs
Task 1 – The Project Manager
The Project Manager
12
Critically evaluate how project management
behaviours can promote organisational success.
Task 2 – Problem Solving and
Decision Making
Problem Solving and
Decision Making
12
Strategically apply relevant project management
practices within organisations
Task 3 – Project Triangle
The Project Triangle
12
Critically appraise project management principles
and environmental contexts in which projects can be
delivered.
Task 4 – Managing Finances
Managing Finances
12
Critically appraise project management principles
and environmental contexts in which projects can be
delivered.
Task 5 – Risk Management
Within the Project
Risk Management
Within a Project
12
Critically appraise project management principles
and environmental contexts in which projects can be
delivered.
Task 6 – Conflicts and
Negotiation
Conflicts and
Negotiation
12
Strategically apply relevant project management
practices within organisations
Task 7 – Teamwork
Teamwork
12
Critically evaluate how project management
behaviours can promote organisational success.
Presentation and Structure
10
Assessment Self-Evaluation
6
Total
100
3. Marking Guide (Student Version)
Highlight in the rubric what level you believe you have met each task (fail, pass, merit, distinction)
Assignment
task
Mark
Distinction
Merit
Pass
Fail
Explain why you feel you
have met the task to the
level you indicate (not
part of maximum word
submission)
The Project
Manager
12
Critical discussion of the key skills
needed by the project manager for
running the project and how to
develop these skills.
Student is leveraging on the
concepts presented in the module
and is applying them to the case
study.
Discussion is supported by strong
evidence from academic literature
and by the comparison with at
least one other similar real project.
Good discussion of the key
skills needed by the project
manager for running the
project and how to develop
these skills.
Student is leveraging on the
concepts presented in the
module and is applying
them to the case study.
Discussion is supported by
solid evidence from
academic literature.
Basic discussion of the key
skills needed by the project
manager for running the
project and how to develop
these skills.
Student is leveraging on the
concepts presented in the
module and is applying
them to the case study.
Discussion is supported by
some basic evidence from
academic literature.
No critical discussion.
No leverage on the
concepts presented in the
module.
No application of the
module concepts to the
case study.
Problem Solving
and Decision
Making
12
Detailed stakeholders influence
map, critical discussion of the
projects’ key stakeholders and of
the stakeholder engagement
techniques that can be adopted by
the project manager.
Student is leveraging on the
concepts presented in the module
and is applying them to the case
study.
Good stakeholders
influence map, good
discussion of the projects’
key stakeholders and of the
stakeholder engagement
techniques that can be
adopted by the project
manager.
Student is leveraging on the
concepts presented in the
Basic stakeholders
influence map, basic
discussion of the projects’
key stakeholders and of the
stakeholder engagement
techniques that can be
adopted by the project
manager.
Student is leveraging on the
concepts presented in the
No critical discussion.
No leverage on the
concepts presented in the
module.
No application of the
module concepts to the
case study.
Discussion is supported by strong
evidence from academic literature
and by the comparison with at
least one other similar real project.
module and is applying
them to the case study.
Discussion is supported by
solid evidence from
academic literature.
module and is applying
them to the case study.
Discussion is supported by
some basic evidence from
academic literature.
Project Triangle
12
Critical discussion of the
importance of the project triangle
parameters and their interrelation.
Student is leveraging on the
concepts presented in the module
and is applying them to the case
study.
Discussion is supported by strong
evidence from academic literature
and by the comparison with at
least one other similar real project.
Good discussion of the
importance of the project
triangle parameters and
their interrelation.
Student is leveraging on the
concepts presented in the
module and is applying
them to the case study.
Discussion is supported by
solid evidence from
academic literature.
Basic discussion of the
importance of the project
triangle parameters and
their interrelation.
Student is leveraging on the
concepts presented in the
module and is applying
them to the case study.
Discussion is supported by
some basic evidence from
academic literature.
No critical discussion.
No leverage on the
concepts presented in the
module.
No application of the
module concepts to the
case study
Managing
Finances
12
Critical discussion and justification
of what can be the cost estimation
approach appropriate for the case
study.
Student is leveraging on the
concepts presented in the module
and is applying them to the case
study.
Discussion is supported by strong
evidence from academic literature
and by the comparison with at
least one other similar real project.
Good discussion and
justification of what can be
the cost estimation
approach appropriate for
the case study.
Student is leveraging on the
concepts presented in the
module and is applying
them to the case study.
Discussion is supported by
solid evidence from
academic literature.
Basic discussion and
justification of what can be
the cost estimation
approach appropriate for
the case study.
Student is leveraging on the
concepts presented in the
module and is applying
them to the case study.
Discussion is supported by
some basic evidence from
academic literature.
No critical discussion and
justification.
No leverage on the
concepts presented in the
module.
No application of the
module concepts to the
case study.
Risk
Management
within the
Project
12
Detailed presentation of at least
10 risks.
Risk register used.
Identified risks are specific to the
case study and leverage on the risk
categories seen in the module
Good presentation
presentation of at least 10
risks.
Risk register used.
Identified risks are specific
to the case study and
leverage on the risk
categories seen in the
module
Basic presentation of at
least 10 risks.
Risk register used.
Identified risks are specific
to the case study and
leverage on the risk
categories seen in the
module
Less than ten risks
identified.
No use of the risk register.
No use of risk categories
seen in the module
No leverage on the
concepts presented in the
module.
No application of the
module concepts to the
case study
Conflicts and
Negotiation
12
Detailed presentation of at least
six conflicts and their sources.
Critical discussion of actions that
can be taken to resolve those
conflicts.
Student is leveraging on the
concepts presented in the module
and is applying them to the case
study.
Discussion is supported by strong
evidence from academic literature
and by the comparison with at
least one other similar real project.
Good presentation of at
least six conflicts and their
sources. Good discussion of
actions that can be taken to
resolve those conflicts.
Student is leveraging on the
concepts presented in the
module and is applying
them to the case study.
Discussion is supported by
solid evidence from
academic literature.
Basic presentation of at
least six conflicts and their
sources. Basic discussion of
actions that can be taken to
resolve those conflicts.
Student is leveraging on the
concepts presented in the
module and is applying
them to the case study.
Discussion is supported by
some basic evidence from
academic literature.
Less than six conflicts
identified, and source of
the conflicts not specified.
No conflict management
techniques/negotiation
strategies presented.
No leverage on the
concepts presented in the
module.
No application of the
module concepts to the
case study
Teamwork
12
Detailed discussion of what can be
done to build highly successful
teams, diverse teams and the
challenges of working in diverse
teams.
Student is leveraging on the
concepts presented in the module
and is applying them to the case
study.
Discussion is supported by strong
evidence from academic literature
Good discussion of what
can be done to build highly
successful teams, diverse
teams and the challenges of
working in diverse teams.
Student is leveraging on the
concepts presented in the
module and is applying
them to the case study.
Basic discussion of what
can be done to build highly
successful teams, diverse
teams and the challenges of
working in diverse teams.
Student is leveraging on the
concepts presented in the
module and is applying
them to the case study.
No critical discussion.
No leverage on the
concepts presented in the
module.
No application of the
module concepts to the
case study
and by the comparison with at
least one other similar real project.
Discussion is supported by
solid evidence from
academic literature.
Discussion is supported by
some basic evidence from
academic literature.
Presentation
and Referencing
Presentation
(5 marks)
Referencing
(5 marks)
10
For a distinction the report will use
a consistent approach to headings,
tables and graphs. Sources will be
correctly cited and there will be a
complete set of references in the
correct format and in alphabetical
order. There is evidence of
extensive independent reading
and research. Formatting and
presentation is professional
throughout.
Referencing has few if any
errors. The report is
reasonably well presented
but could be improved by
greater attention to detail.
There is evidence of wider
reading and research.
There is a limited number
of references, but the
correct format is used,
albeit with some errors.
There may be some errors
in formatting and
presentation, but the
report is reasonably
professional in appearance.
References are
inappropriate, irrelevant
and/or incorrectly
formatted. The references
themselves suggest they
have simply been copied
from another source
without accessing the
material by the student.
Assessment
Self-Evaluation
6
Student has highlighted which level she/he believes have met each task and provided a basic
explanation.
No self-evaluation.
No explanation.
Total
100
5. Appendix A – General Grading Criteria (Level 7)
Criteria
Pass Grades
Referral/Fail Grades
High Distinction
85-100%
Distinction
70-84%
Merit
60-69%
Pass
50-59%
Referral/Fail
30-49%
Referral/Low Fail
0-29%
The work displays:
The work displays:
The work displays:
The work displays:
The work displays:
The work displays:
Knowledge &
Understanding
(a) Systematic
Understanding
(b) Emerging
Thought
(a) Strong evidence of
a comprehensive and
systematic
understanding of an
extensive range of
appropriate issues,
concepts, theories and
research
(a) Clear evidence of a
comprehensive and
systematic
understanding of a
considerable variety of
issues, concepts,
theories and research
(a) Clear evidence of a
comprehensive and
systematic
understanding of all
major – and some
minor – issues,
concepts, theories and
research
(a) Evidence of a
systematic
understanding, which
may contain some
gaps, of all major –
and some minor –
issues, concepts,
theories and research
(a) Evidence of an
understanding of an
appropriate range of
issues, concepts,
theories and research
but has significant
gaps or
misunderstandings.
(a) Evidence of a
limited
understanding of
issues, concepts,
theories and
research either major
and/or minor.
(b) Sustained
excellence in the
application of
thoughts and practices
at the forefront of the
discipline
(b) Precise and well
judged application of
thoughts and practices
at the forefront of the
discipline
(b) Some clear
evidence of the
application of thoughts
and practices at the
forefront of the
discipline
(b) Clear evidence of
an understanding of
thoughts and
practices at the
forefront of the
discipline.
(b) Unclear or
imprecise
understanding of
thoughts and practices
at the forefront of the
discipline.
(b) Significant gaps in
the understanding of
the debates at the
forefront of the
discipline.
Argument
(a) Analysis,
Synthesis &
Evaluation
(b) Numerical
Analysis
(c)
Argumentation
(d) Independent
Research
(a) Consistently
precise, accurate and
reasoned analysis,
synthesis and/or
evaluation; addressing
issues with insight or
originality
(a) Consistently precise,
accurate and reasoned
analysis, synthesis
and/or evaluation
addressing all issues,
some with creativity
(a) Precision, accuracy
and clear reasoning
throughout the
analysis, synthesis
and/or evaluation
addressing all issues
appropriately
(a) Broad levels of
precision, accuracy
and reasoning in
analysis, synthesis
and/or evaluation,
and addresses all key
issues
(a) Errors which affect
the consistency of the
analysis, synthesis or
evaluation and/or key
gaps in the issues
addressed
(a) A lack of
precision, accuracy
or reasoning in
analysis, synthesis or
evaluation with
significant gaps in
the issues addressed
(b) Numeric analysis
that is complete and
free from errors with
(b) Numeric analysis
that is complete and
mostly free from errors
(b) Numeric analysis
that is complete and
mostly free from errors
(b) Numeric analysis
that is mostly
complete and free
(b) Numeric analysis
that is mostly
complete but contains
(b) Numeric analysis
that is incomplete or
contains errors which
application of
methods that may be
insightful or original
with fluent and
appropriate application
of methods.
with relevant and
effective application of
methods.
from significant or
critical errors with
appropriate
application of
methods.
errors with significant
effect, or methods
that are applied
inappropriately
have critical effect,
or methods that are
applied
inappropriately
(c) Extremely strong
and consistent
argument making a
convincing whole with
evidence of originality.
Impressive dexterity in
the use of information
gathered to support
the argument.
(c) Extremely strong and
consistent argument
that convincingly
addresses issues
including uncertainties
and conflicts. Excellent
use of information
gathered which to
support and further the
argument
(c) Evidence of an
argument that is
generally convincing
with a good internal
consistency and
addresses most issues.
Very good use of
information gathered
to support the
argument.
(c) Evidence of an
overall convincing
argument but may
have weaknesses,
gaps or
inconsistencies. Clear
use of information
gathered but may
have some
weaknesses in the
integration into the
argument.
(c) Evidence of a
consistent argument
but may have
weaknesses,
significant gaps or be
unconvincing. Clear
use of information
gathered but may not
be sufficient to sustain
the argument.
(c) Lack of
consistency or
structure in the
argument. Serious
weaknesses in the
integration of
evidence and/or no
awareness of the
limitations or
weaknesses of the
research.
Argument
(continued)
(d) Independent
Research
(d) Evidence of an
innovative or original
use of extensive
personal research
which has been
thoroughly critically
evaluated both
conceptually and
methodologically
(d) Substantial research
and evidence of an
innovative use of a wide
range of personal
research with clear and
consistent critical
evaluation both
conceptually and
methodologically
(d) Clear evidence of
considerable personal
research and the use of
a diverse range of
appropriate sources
but may contain
problems with
consistency in the
conceptual and
methodological critical
evaluation
(d) Appropriate use of
a wide range of
personal research
which is critically
evaluated for key
conceptual and
methodological issues
although this may not
be consistent
throughout
(d) Evidence of a range
of personal research
but evidence of
methodological or
conceptual evaluation
may be limited,
inconsistent or
inappropriate
(d) Over reliance on
very restricted range
of personal or
secondary research
much of which may
not be evaluated and
may not be directly
related to the
question or area
Presentation
(a) Structure
(b) Referencing
(c) Use of
Language
(a) Excellent structure
and presentation
(a) Excellent structure
and presentation
(a) Good structure and
presentation
(a) Adequate
structure and
presentation
(a) Adequate structure
and presentation
(a) Poor structure
and presentation
(b) Precise, full and
appropriate references
and notes.
(b) Precise, full and
appropriate references
and notes.
(b) Full and appropriate
references and notes
with minor or
insignificant errors
(b) Good references
and notes with minor
or insignificant errors
or omissions
(b) Competent
references and notes
but may contain
inconsistencies, errors
or omissions
(b) Poor references
and notes with
multiple
inconsistencies,
errors or omissions
(c) Subtle use of
language expressing
highly nuanced
thought with clarity
and precision to a level
appropriate for
submission for
publication.
(c) Precise use of
language expressing
complex thought with
clarity, accuracy and
precision which furthers
and enhances the
argument
(c) Clear and precise
use of language
allowing a complex
argument to be easily
understood and
followed
(c) Generally clear use
of language sufficient
for arguments to be
readily understood
and followed
(c) Generally
understandable use of
language but
significant errors in
expression affecting
overall clarity
(c) Serious errors in
the use of language
which makes
meaning unclear or
imprecise

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