Quality and Ethics in Qualitative Research

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Week 10: Quality and Ethics in Qualitative Research
The program executive director came back from the presentation of the preliminary results looking glum. “The board wants us to justify that our results are valid and reliable.”
Even though qualitative research has incorporated frameworks for ensuring rigor for many years, there are many in the scholarly and professional community who doubt anything that does not have a number or p value included.
Qualitative articles on this topic vary in the language used to describe these frameworks. Most notable is Guba’s (1981) framework articulating four dimensions that is commonly used.
In addressing credibility, investigators attempt to demonstrate that a true picture of the phenomenon under scrutiny is being presented. To allow transferability, they provide sufficient detail of the context of the fieldwork for a reader to be able to decide whether the prevailing environment is similar to another situation with which he or she is familiar and whether the findings can justifiably be applied to the other setting. The meeting of the dependability criterion is difficult in qualitative work, although researchers should at least strive to enable a future investigator to repeat the study. Finally, to achieve confirmability, researchers must take steps to demonstrate that findings emerge from the data and not their own predispositions (Shenton, 2004, p. 63).
Ethics
As you learned in 8110, all research must be reviewed by Walden’s Institutional Review Board (IRB). The unique characteristics (emergent design, reflexivity, and naturalistic setting) of qualitative research can create additional concerns for the IRB as well as the organizations where data is being collected. As you study this week’s resources, consider:
The role of the researcher as instrument and co-participant
The strategies that have to be employed in order to make good on the promises in the Informed Consent (privacy, confidentiality)
The concerns of managing, summarizing, and publishing from data that is inherently intimate and contextual
For this week, you will explore quality, trustworthiness, and credibility in qualitative research. You also will examine ethical challenges for the qualitative researcher.
Learning Objectives
Students will:
Analyze quality, trustworthiness, and credibility in qualitative research
Evaluate strategies for quality, trustworthiness, and credibility in qualitative research
Analyze ethical challenges in qualitative research
Design qualitative research for social change
Analyze personal meaning for positive social change
Learning Resources
Note: To access this week’s required library resources, please click on the link to the Course Readings List, found in the Course Materials section of your Syllabus.
Required Readings
Ravitch, S. M., & Carl, N. M. (2016). Qualitative research: Bridging the conceptual, theoretical, and methodological. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Chapter 11, “Research Ethics and the Relational Quality of Research” (pp. 343–382)
Rubin, H. J., & Rubin, I. S. (2012). Qualitative interviewing: The art of hearing data (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Chapter 13, “Sharing the Results” (pp. 213–232) 
Shenton, A. K. (2004). Strategies for ensuring trustworthiness in qualitative research projects. Education for Information 22(2), 63-75.
The following articles are examples of literature reviews on the aspects of social change.
Thomas, E.F., MCGarty, C., & Mavor, K.I. (2009). Transforming “Apathy into movement”: The role of prosocial emotions in motivation action for social change. Personality & Social Psychology Review, 13(4), 310-333.
Kezar, A. (2014). Higher education change and social networks: A review of the research. Journal of Higher Education, 85(1), 91-125.
Aguinis, H. & Glavas, A. (2012). What we know and don’t know about corporate social responsibility: A review and research agenda. Journal of Management, 38(4). 932-968.
Walden University Library. (n.d.). Course guide and assignment help for RSCH 8310. Retrieved from http://academicguides.waldenu.edu/rsch8310
Discussion 1: Trustworthiness in Qualitative Research
Understanding the strategies that have been developed to address issues of trustworthiness is the first step. The second step is considering “how could I do that in my own research?” It is important to recognize that it may not be feasible for you, as a novice researcher, to implement all possible strategies.
For this Discussion, you will examine quality, trustworthiness, and credibility in qualitative research and provide specific techniques and strategies.
To prepare for this Discussion:
Review Chapter 11 of the Ravitch and Carl course text and the Shenton article related to trustworthiness in qualitative research.
Use the Course Guide and Assignment Help to search for an article related to trustworthiness and/or quality in qualitative research.
By Day 3
Post an explanation of how you ensure the quality, trustworthiness, and credibility of your qualitative research. Provide examples of specific techniques and strategies. Use your Learning Resources as well as the article you found in your search to support your explanation. Use proper APA format, citations, and referencing.
By Day 5
Respond to at least one of your colleagues’ posts and search the Internet and/or the Walden Library for a different article related to trustworthiness and/or quality of qualitative research that offers other techniques or strategies. Explain how these other techniques or strategies might further ensure quality, trustworthiness, and credibility in qualitative research. Finally, evaluate the feasibility of your colleague’s strategies. Reference the article you found to support your explanation. Use proper APA format, citations, and referencing.
Submission and Grading Information
Grading Criteria
To access your rubric:
Week 10 Discussion 1 Rubric
Post by Day 3 and Respond by Day 5
To participate in this Discussion:
Week 10 Discussion 1
Discussion 2: Ethics in Data Collection
Research ethics in qualitative research starts with the presumption that the research process is the collaboration between researcher, participants, and context. At the same time, the researcher recognizes that she or he retains power over the data collection process, and the analysis and presentation of results.
As a qualitative researcher, consider how you might accomplish your research objectives and biases with the feelings and privacy of your participants and sources.
For this Discussion, you will explore the ethical challenges you will encounter as a qualitative researcher.
To prepare for this Discussion:
Review Chapter 11 of the Ravitch and Carl course text and consider ethics in qualitative research.
Use the Course Guide and Assignment Help to search for an article related to protecting privacy, minimizing harm, or respecting the shared experience of others.
By Day 4
Post an explanation of the unique ethical challenges of protecting privacy, minimizing harm, and respecting the shared experience of others. Use your Learning Resources to support your explanation as well as the article you found in your search. Use proper APA format, citations, and referencing.
By Day 6
Respond to at least one of your colleagues’ posts and explain what you found in your search related to protecting privacy, minimizing harm, and respecting the shared experiences of others. Provide a suggestion for overcoming the ethical challenge your colleague addressed in their post. Use the article you found in your search to support your response. Use proper APA format, citations, and referencing.
Submission and Grading Information
Grading Criteria
To access your rubric:
Week 10 Discussion 2 Rubric
Post by Day 4 and Respond by Day 6
To participate in this Discussion:
Week 10 Discussion 2
Major Assignment 2: The Analysis and Interpretation of Qualitative Data
For this Major Assignment 2, you will finalize your analysis in your Part 3, Results section, and finalize your presentation of results from the different data sources. Also, for this week, you will complete the Part 4, Trustworthiness and Summary section to finalize the last part of this Major Assignment 2.
To prepare for this Assignment:
Review the social change articles found in this week’s Learning Resources.
Part 4: Trustworthiness and Summary
Trustworthiness—summarize across the different data sources and respond to the following:
What themes are in common?
What sources have different themes?
Explain the trustworthiness of your findings, in terms of:
Credibility
Transferability
Dependability strategies
Confirmability

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Summary
Based on the results of your analyses, how would you answer the question: “What is the meaning of social change for Walden graduate students?”
Self-Reflection—Has your own understanding of you as a positive social change agent changed? Explain your reasoning.
Based on your review of the three articles on social change, which one is aligned with your interests regarding social change and why?
By Day 7
Submit Parts 1, 2, 3, and 4 of your Major Assignment 2.
Submission and Grading Information
To submit your completed Assignment for review and grading, do the following:
Please save your Assignment using the naming convention “WK10Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” as the name.
Click the Week 10 Major Assignment 2 Rubric to review the Grading Criteria for the Assignment.
Click the Week 10 Major Assignment 2 link. You will also be able to “View Rubric” for grading criteria from this area.
Next, from the Attach File area, click on the Browse My Computer button. Find the document you saved as “WK10Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” and click Open.
If applicable: From the Plagiarism Tools area, click the checkbox for I agree to submit my paper(s) to the Global Reference Database.
Click on the Submit button to complete your submission.
Grading Criteria
To access your rubric:
Week 10 Major Assignment 2 Rubric
Check Your Assignment Draft for Authenticity
To check your Major Assignment 2 draft for authenticity:
Submit your Week 10 Major Assignment 2 draft and review the originality report.
Submit Your Assignment by Day 7
To submit your Assignment:
Week 10 Major Assignment 2
Making Connections
This week, you explained how to ensure quality, trustworthiness, and credibility of your resources and the unique ethical challenges of protecting privacy, minimizing harm, and respecting shared experiences of others.
Next week, you will examine the meaning of social change and how this course influenced your understanding.
To go to the next week:
Week 11

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