soft drinks market for more than a century

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COKE AND PEPSI: FROM GLOBAL TO INDIAN ADVERTISING Coca-Cola and Pepsi-Cola vied for a “throat share” of the soft drinks market for more than a century. Carbonated soft drinks (CSD) contributed to majority of the revenues in soft drinks. The core market was the United States which had high per capita consumption (see Exhibit 1 for per capita consumption of carbonates in select countries). The Americas accounted for 54% of the global CSD market, Europe for 34.5%, and Asia-Pacific for 11%.1 The industry was characterized by the presence of strong brands – with three brands – Coca-Cola, Pepsi, and Sprite ranked 1, 23, and 61 globally and valued1 $70 billion, $14 billion, and $5.8 billion, respectively by Interbrand, a leading brand valuation and consultancy firm.2 Advertising had played a major role in building the brands of the two majors which largely competed on parity pricing. Until the mid-1990s, consumption of soft drinks in the United States steadily increased while that of milk and coffee declined. Thereafter, owing to shifting consumer preferences towards healthier beverages, the US market began to plateau. This posed a challenge to the two majors. Was their era of sustained growth and profitability in CSD coming to an end or could they drive growth from emerging markets such as India? How much should they invest in advertising? Should Indian advertising be shaped by global advertising? GLOBAL SOFT DRINK INDUSTRY The term “soft drink” was coined to distinguish flavored drinks from hard liquor. The soft drink industry was born when Coca-Cola syrup was formulated in 1886 by John Pemberton, a pharmacist in the United States who sold it at drugstore fountains as a potion for “mental and physical disorders.”3 In 1894, Coca-Cola granted its first bottling franchise which led to the proliferation of Coca-Cola throughout the United States by 1895. An infrastructure of independent bottlers added sweeteners and carbonated waters to the syrups and bases received from Coca-Cola to produce the drink to exact specifications and distributed it within a specific region. This soon became the model distribution method for all the companies. The manufacturers provided a variety of services including quality control, marketing, advertising, research & development, and finance. In turn, the bottlers supplied the required capital investment for land, buildings, machinery, equipment, trucks, and bottles. The industry sold its product in two forms – packaged and fountain service. With fountain service, the product was dispensed in cups, typically in a restaurant or any location with a food service station and was consumed on the premises. Sales for consumption on the premises were termed “on-trade” sales and those for consumption off the premises as “off-trade” sales. Worldwide off-trade sales dominated the soft drink sales. Carbonated Soft Drink During the 1980s, as consumers became more interested in health and fitness, soft drink manufacturers developed low calorie beverages such as Diet Coke and Diet Pepsi. The fitness craze continued in 1990s leading to the emergence of ‘‘new age drinks’’ such as flavored sparkling waters, natural sodas, fruit juice drinks, flavored teas, and bottled coffee products. From the humble beginnings of one cola, the soft drink industry exploded into a kaleidoscope of beverages – carbonates or non-carbonates. Carbonates were of two types – cola and non-cola. Non- cola carbonates consisted of predominantly lime and orange flavors. In 2009, regular cola contributed to 42% of the global CSD market, whereas contribution of non-cola carbonates was 29% and diet cola 15%.2,4 Non-carbonates comprised fruit/vegetable juice, bottled water, functional drinks (such as energy drinks), and ready-to-drink tea/coffee. Consumption of carbonated drinks varied widely by region and culture. While the developed markets of 1 Interbrand arrives at brand value based on financial performance, role of brand in purchase decision process, and the ability of the brand to secure expected future earnings. 2 By value
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Australia, Western Europe, and North America were strongly skewed towards low calorie colas, the developing markets of Eastern Europe and Latin America were skewed towards regular colas and the untapped markets of Asia Pacific, Middle East, and Africa were skewed towards lime flavor. Similar to the rest of the world, in India also, carbonated drinks contributed the maximum to the sales of soft drinks (Exhibit 2). Non-carbonates however grew faster than carbonates. During 2004–2009, while total CSD market had a compounded annual growth rate of 4.5%, cola carbonates grew by 2% and non-cola by 6.5%.5 Sales of cola carbonates was Rs. 18 billion in 2009 (1$ = Rs. 48.50, in December 2009), while that of non-cola carbonates was Rs. 26 million. Within non-cola segment, sales of lemon flavor was Rs. 12.8 million, whereas that of orange was Rs. 8.4 million (Exhibit 3). THE COCA-COLA COMPANY Coca-Cola was created in Atlanta in 1886 by pharmacist John Pemberton. His partner Frank Robinson named the drink as Coca-Cola and designed the now famous trademark.6 During World War II, at the request of General Eisenhower, Coca-Cola promised to deliver a bottle of Coke for five cents to every soldier wherever he was and whatever it cost the company.7 Coca-Cola bottling plants followed the US military world over which contributed to Coke’s dominant post-war presence in many European and Asian countries. In the 1960s, Coke launched Fanta (1960), Sprite (1961), and the low calorie cola Tab (1963). It diversified into non-carbonates by purchasing “Minute Maid” (fruit juice), “Duncan Foods” (coffee, tea, and hot chocolate), and “Belmont Springs Water.” In 1982, the company launched Diet Coke, the first ever extension of the Coca-Cola trademark which quickly became its most successful new brand launch in the twentieth century.8 Coca-Cola believed that beverage choices were shaped by ‘‘need’’ and ‘‘occasion.’’ It identified three overarching need states that motivated different consumption occasions – “routine refreshment need,” “active replenishment need”, and “sensory pleasure need.”3 Coke aimed to provide a portfolio of beverages that satisfied all the need and occasion states.9 In 2009, it had a portfolio of 3,300 non-alcoholic beverages sold across 200 countries. In 2009, Coca-Cola held 42% market share of the global CSD market.10 Its four brands – Coca-Cola, Diet Coke, Fanta, and Sprite ranked among the top five global CSD brands by sales volume (Exhibit 4). In 2010, Coca-Cola had revenues of $31 billion and net income of $6.8 billion (see Exhibit 5 for financial performance of Coca-Cola and PepsiCo). Coca-Cola in India Coca-Cola had entered the Indian market in 1970 and was the market leader until 1977 when it exited the country following changes in the government policies. Over the next few years, Parle emerged as a strong local player with a host of popular brands – Thums Up, Gold Spot, and Limca. Coca-Cola reentered India in 1993 and bought Parle that gave it ownership of Parle’s top brands, bottling network, and consumer franchise. International brands from its global portfolio – Coca-Cola, Diet Coke, Sprite, and Fanta were launched in India. On re-entering, Coca-Cola faced the challenge of managing the outdated bottling plants of Parle. Moreover, its single-minded focus on its flagship brand “Coke” resulted in the decline of the market share of Thums Up from 60% in 1993 to 15% in 1998. It then decided to beef up advertising and distribution of Thums Up to revive the brand.11 In the early 2000s, it streamlined its operations by closing down outdated plants, cut costs by using local raw materials, upgraded bottling technology and spread distribution network, eventually turning the corner in the mid-2000s. In 2009, Coca-Cola India was the market leader with 59% market share in CSD (see Exhibit 6 for company-wise market shares in India). ADVERTISING OF THE MAJOR CSD BRANDS OF COCA-COLA Coca-Cola – The Early Advertising Coca-Cola advertised for the first time in 1906 with the help of D’Arcy, a highly regarded print ad agency. The 1929 campaign “The pause that refreshes” met with huge success. During 1930 to mid-1950s, it used several campaigns
3 The routine refreshment need state was a habitual and low involvement condition motivating consumption at your desk, around the house or studying at night, and was dominated by water. Active replenishment reflected need for energy most commonly among sportspersons, people working out, and manual laborers. For decades, water served active replenishment needs until the emergence of sports drink. Sensory pleasure need states may include coffee, juice, and sparkling beverages, and are less predictable.
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with the theme of “refresh.” Early advertising used fine illustrations and portraits of Santa Claus by popular artists in leading magazines.12 During World War II, its ads celebrated the war effort of Coke in shipping to the troops. By 1950, Coca-Cola dominated the US market with 47% share.13 In the late 1950s, Coca-Cola ads implicitly recognized the existence of competitors: “America’s preferred taste” (1955) and “No wonder coke refreshes best” (1960).14 In the 1960s, it had well-known campaigns – “Things go better with a Coke” (1963) and “It’s the real thing” (1970). By the late 1960s, civil rights protests and a very unpopular war in Vietnam were all tearing the United States apart. In 1971, Coke launched the campaign “Hilltop.” The spot shot on a hillside began with two fresh-faced girls singing, “I’d like to buy the world a home, and furnish it with love…” They were joined by hundreds of others from different countries singing the next verse: “I’d like to teach the world to sing in perfect harmony. I’d like to buy the world a Coke, and keep it company.” The ad concluded with “What the world wants today is the real thing. Coca-Cola.”15 The ad became an international hit. During the mid-1970s when there was political uncertainty in the United States stemming from Watergate, Coke aired the campaign “Look up America.” By the late 1970s, racial strife in America had become huge with African Americans losing jobs. In 1979, the Coke campaign showed a young boy encountering “Mean Joe Green” as he leaves the football stadium after the game. Greene was one of the most feared and talented defenders who treated football similar to war and usually won crushing the opponents. In Coke’s ad, the kid stopped the ferocious player by simply asking, “Mr. Greene?” The massive Green turned to the small boy and answered, “Yeah?” “Do you need any help?” the kid asked. Greene shook him off and continued his retreat to the locker room. Unfazed by the star’s grave veneer, the kid asked, “Do you…want my Coke?” “No no” Green said. “Really, you can have it,” the boy responded. Greene finally relented, took the Coke, and, parched from the game, chugged the entire bottle. The earnest and intimidated boy expected nothing in return and walked away, but Joe shouted to him, “Hey kid!” When the boy turned, Green tossed his game jersey to the boy. “Wow, thanks, Mean Joe,” the kid said. Green’s face lit up with a big smile. The text, “Have a Coke and a smile,” concluded the ad which became a hit. 16 Always Coca-Cola In 1993, Coke launched “Always Coca-Cola” to challenge the youthful advertising of Pepsi and to regain the lost market share. Unlike its earlier campaigns, the “Always Coca-Cola” ads did not seek to appeal universally to a broad audience. Instead, the campaign encompassed multiple commercials targeted at different audiences. With the entertaining spots, Coke hoped to cater to the sensibilities of the youth (aged 18 to 29 years). At the same time, Coke was concerned that the new campaign must not alienate the core and aging longtime Coke drinkers. Individual commercials that highlighted traditional “family values” such as the ad on the reminiscing anniversary couple reached out to this group. Coke turned to Creative Artists Agency (CAA), a Hollywood agency (which had never before overseen an advertising campaign) in its quest for things that were cool in the film, music, and fashion industries. CAA used talented Hollywood directors to produce ads that were more similar to mini-movies than ads. One of the commercials “Northern lights” depicted a magical place where polar bears watched movies and drank Coca-Cola. It became one of the most popular symbols of Coke advertising. Coke broadcast the commercials in programs and channels that appealed to the desired target. An executive said:
A commercial that related the tale of a spaceship was aired during Star trek episodes and a music video-based ad ran on MTV.17
The commercials had an international structure with some centered around purely visual effects, allowing Coke to show the ads unchanged in several countries. Others were simply translated or modified into local languages. The campaign which continued through the year 2000 contributed to an increase in market share. Coca-Cola Advertising in the Twenty-first Century In the year 2000, “Always Coca-Cola” was replaced by “Coca-Cola Enjoy” which showed that Coke was one of life’s most common and affordable pleasures. The theme was global, but the campaign was adapted to local cultures. In 2003, Coke launched “Real” campaign which reminded consumers of its past, its authenticity, and its realness. In one commercial, Penelope Cruz walked into a restaurant, guzzled a Coke Classic, burped, and giggled. The commercials aimed at revealing celebrities during “real” moments in which they enjoyed a “real” soft drink.18
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By 2005, Coke wanted to refresh the brand. It launched a global campaign “Coke side of life” and the only rule laid down for local advertising was that the spots must show how the physical and emotional uplift a Coke provided, led to being positive. One commercial – “Happiness factory” received a Silver Lion at the 2007 Cannes awards. In 2009, Coke further built on the idea of life’s simple pleasures and positivity with its global campaign “Open happiness.” Coca-Cola Advertising in India Coke was launched in India in 1993 with the “Hilltop” commercial. During 1994–1998, Coke ran its global campaign “Always Coca-Cola” and during 2000–2001 “Coca-Cola enjoy.” In 2003, Coke launched a campaign “Thanda matlab Coca-Cola” positioning Coke as a generic cold beverage.19 It won the “Campaign of the year” award. During 2007–2008, Coke started a corporate campaign “Little drops of joy” targeted at all its stakeholders. The campaign reminded people that Coke does not just quench thirst; it recharges one’s soul, for a moment, one drop at a time.20 During 2009–2010, Coke started campaigns “Open happiness” and “Coke opens up possibilities.” Targeted at the youth as exemplified by the choice of the celebrity Imran Khan, the campaign showcased how Coke enabled building spontaneous connections even between strangers.21 Over the years, Coca-Cola used various celebrities in its ads including movie stars – Karishma Kapoor, Hrithik Roshan, and Aishwarya Rai; and cricketers – Srinath and Saurav Ganguly. In 2010, its brand ambassador was Aamir Khan. In 2009, Coke had 9.1% market share of CSD in India (see Exhibit 7 for brand-wise market shares in India). For global as well as Indian advertising, it had a long-standing partnership with McCann Erickson (see Exhibit 8 for advertising expenditure of brands in India). Diet Coke The Early Advertising In 1980, Diet Pepsi was the leader in the low calorie cola market which held 20% of the soft drinks market in the United States. In 1982, Coca-Cola launched Diet Coke. The campaign “Just for the taste of it” was targeted at yuppies (young urban professionals – both men and women) that cared deeply about personal appearance.22 The campaign was a success and continued for 10 years. Thereafter, the brand stagnated and was repositioned to speak directly to its core female audience. In 1993, Coca-Cola broadcast its “One awesome calorie” campaign.23 In 1997, Coca-Cola broadcast a new campaign “You are what you drink” based on the premise that the product helped people to look and feel their best. Coca-Cola identified three attitudinal segments as its target market. The “fit and confident” were the younger and hipper group, 20-something men and women who did not need to diet but feared gaining weight. The “reluctant dieters” were men and women in their 30s who wanted to look good without sacrificing taste. The “aggressive dieters” were women aged 35 years and above who worked hard to stay fit.24 To address diverse target audiences, Coca-Cola broadened the definition of Diet Coke as a stylish fashionable brand.25 Advertising in the Twenty-first Century In 2001, Coke launched a campaign “Live your life” which reached out to diet-weary consumers by focusing on happiness with oneself rather than with one’s appearance. This campaign placed man at the center when Diet Coke campaigns had traditionally been woman-centric. Coca-Cola planned the repositioning of the brand as a “lifestyle” brand and moved it beyond the core female market. It launched a new campaign “For those who love life” and showed that the brand had great taste and was part of an active lifestyle. The campaign met with success.26 In 2010, Diet Coke launched a new campaign “Stay extraordinary”, which celebrated the achievements of Diet Coke drinkers. Katie Bayne, Chief Marketing Officer, Coca-Cola North America said:
Diet Coke drinkers are multi-faceted, confident, and motivated people who embrace brands that inspire drive, passion, and courage. Diet Coke helps them to excel at both work and play and “Stay extraordinary.”27
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Diet Coke became the No. 1 low calorie drink in America. Known as Coca-Cola Lite in some countries, in 2010, it was the third largest CSD brand in the world by sales volume. In India, Diet Coke had a market share of 0.3% in 2009. It was advertised minimally and used the tagline “only one calorie.” Sprite The Early Advertising Introduced in the United States in 1961, Sprite was a tangy citrus drink whose sales consistently languished behind those of its rival 7 Up. In 1986, Coca-Cola launched a campaign “Great Lymon taste makes sense” stressing unique “lymon” (lime and lemon) flavor which contributed to Sprite surpassing 7 Up in market share.28 In 1987, it launched the “I like the Sprite in you” campaign which continued to drive its sales until 1994. The campaign targeted at 12– 29-year olds used a catchy musical theme that proclaimed, “I like the way you make me laugh/I like the funny things you do/I like the Sprite in you.” It was occasionally performed by famous pop musicians and had images of quirky characters.29 Obey Your Thirst In 1994, the company launched a campaign “Image is nothing. Thirst is everything. Obey your thirst.” The irreverent spots spoofed other commercials that used glamour and star appeal.30 Humor was essential to the campaign as were striking visuals. The brand’s market share increased during the life of the campaign. Sprite Advertising in the Twenty-first Century By 2001, however sales had begun to wane and new versions of the “Image is nothing” campaign failed to halt the decline. In the mid-2000s, Sprite launched a campaign “SubLYMONal” which acknowledged up-front that the commercials contained hidden subliminal content and encouraged people to interact with the advertisement. However, the campaign failed as the target audience found it difficult to decode the subliminal messages.31 In 2010, Bartle Bogle Hegarty launched a new global campaign “Sprite, the spark”, which showed how Sprite gave the sudden burst of fresh thinking to an artist who was struggling to perform. The campaign emphasized individuality and creativity.32 In 2010, Sprite was the world’s leading lemon–lime flavored soft drink and the fourth largest CSD brand in sales volume. Sprite Advertising in India Sprite was launched in India in 1999 with the “Image is nothing” campaign.4 One of the advertisements which spoofed the “Lux” soap commercial showed Lisa Ray (the model in Lux ad) bathing in Sprite so that her skin could keep glowing. “If you pay money people are willing to say anything” voiced the commercial. Through the 2000s, Sprite launched various versions of the “Image is nothing” campaign.5 Some of the advertisements showed spoofs of Pepsi and Mountain Dew ads. In 2009, Sprite was the No. 3 brand in India with a market share of 13%. Ogilvy & Mather (O&M) was its creative agency in India. Fanta Fanta, a fruit-flavored soft drink was purchased by Coca-Cola in 1960. The trademark was derived from the word “fantasy.” Fanta was more popular in Europe and South America. Brazil and India were its largest markets.33 The brand with its bright color, bold fruit taste, and tingly carbonation was targeted at teens. Throughout the 2000s, it broadcast a campaign “Grab a taste of Friday” which celebrated the fact that Friday was the most enjoyable part of the week.
4 The tagline in Hindi was “Only pyaas, baki sab bakwas”. 5 The various versions (in Hindi) were “Dikhawa hai waste, trust only taste” (2001); “All tast,e no gyaan” (2002); “Sprite bujhaye pyaas, baki sab bakwas” (2007); and “Seedhi baat, no bakwaas, clear hai” (2008).
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The brand was launched in India in 1993. Its advertising throughout conveyed that Fanta not just uplifted feelings, but also freed spirits encouraging one to indulge in the moment.6 The brand endorsed by Rani Mukherjee stood for playfulness.34 ADVERTISING OF THE INDIAN CSD BRANDS OF COCA-COLA Thums Up Thums Up was originally introduced in 1977 in India by Parle and thereafter acquired by Coca-Cola in 1993. With a strong taste and greater carbonation, it was targeted at young adult males. In 1987, the iconic slogans “Toofani thanda” and “Taste the thunder” were created which featured Salman Khan and Akshay Kumar.35 Vikas Gupta, VP Marketing, Coca-Cola India said:
The Thums Up “Taste the thunder” series portrays every person’s hidden yearning to dare and win over the impossible.36
Until 2009, Coca-Cola continued with the tagline ‘‘Taste the thunder” and “I want my thunder”. Kashmira Chadha, Director Marketing, Coca-Cola India said:
For a brand as iconic as Thums Up, one does not need to innovate. It is consistency that won the consumers over and it is therefore consistency that we offer them.37
In between, it ran a campaign “Grow up Thums Up” wherein it challenged Pepsi for a blind taste test. The campaign was based on the insight that portraying the brand as an adult drink would appeal to young consumers.38 In 2010, “Taste the thunder” campaign was revised to “I will do anything for my thunder.” In 2010, Thums Up was the top- selling brand with market share of 15.3%. Thums Up commanded a strong following in certain parts of the country such as Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal, and Uttar Pradesh. Its extra fizz had strong affinity with the local populace that had penchant for spicy food. Coke on the other hand was strong in Delhi and Punjab. In the east and west where Thums Up had a dominant market share, Coca-Cola advertised Thums Up aggressively and slashed the price of Coke. A reverse strategy was followed in the north and south, where Coke sold more than Thums Up. Limca The Early Advertising Limca was created in 1971 in India by Parle and thereafter acquired by Coca-Cola in 1993. It operated in the cloudy lemon segment which did not exist in most developed markets. In India, the brand had a strong equity particularly in the regional markets of Punjab and Andhra Pradesh. Over the years, it had Sonali Bendre, Saif Ali Khan, and Riya Sen as the celebrity endorsers. It had sharp fizz and was positioned as thirst-quenching refreshment with popular tagline “Lime ‘n’ Lemoni, Limca.” Advertising in the Twenty-first Century In 2001, it launched a campaign “Har pyas bujhaye” (quench every type of thirst) which aimed to position the brand as a quencher of not only physical thirst, but also emotional thirst. Virat Mehta, Vice-President, Client Services, O&M said:
Every soft drink is about quenching thirst, but Limca is the only one most clearly positioned as a thirst quencher. 39
After being a plain-vanilla thirst quencher for more than two decades, Limca intended to occupy a more powerful platform. A senior executive said:
6 Its campaigns were “Electric fun taste” (1995); “Anything is possible” (global campaign in 1998); “Bajao masti ki ghanti” (2001); “Dil khol ke” (2003); “Ghoonth bhar shararat kar ley” (2007); “Fanta ka signal loud, bunking is allowed” (2009); “Dikhao apne asli rang” (2010).
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There was an aura around the brand that was old, passive, and not in tune with the times. It was not a cool or a trendsetter brand for the young in the age group of 20–29 years. There was a need to portray the brand as fresh, active, and trendy.40
Market research showed that the young were buoyant about their lives. They wanted a drink that could refresh them. With its cloudy look and distinct Lime ‘n’ Lemoni taste, Limca invoked coolness and rejuvenation. This led to the proposition of freshness. The brand needed a dimension of freshness that consumers could relate to and the insight was “water” as water was widely considered as an elixir of life in India. The creative leap was that after drinking Limca, consumers see and experience water-like freshness where there is none. Not only were they submerged in the feeling of freshness, but people around them were caught unawares and they too experienced water-like freshness. The result was a campaign “Fresh ho jao” (be fresh) broadcast from 2005 until 2008.41 In 2009, a new campaign “Doobo taajgi mein, fresh ho jao” (get immersed in freshness, be fresh) was launched. It took the earlier idea of “water-like freshness” further based on the insight that consumers desire to rejuvenate emotions which are constantly being dulled in the routine pursuit of success.42 In 2010, the new “Splash of freshness” campaign used “romance” as a key to emotional rejuvenation. The communication was based on how Limca with its water-like freshness can spark a playful romantic interaction between two strangers.43 PEPSICO Pepsi-Cola was created in 1898 in North Carolina by druggist Caleb D Bradham who claimed that it cured dyspepsia (indigestion). Pepsi-Cola grew throughout the twentieth century and in 1963 acquired Frito-Lay, the largest US snack foods company. The company changed its name to PepsiCo Inc. and later acquired restaurant chains – Pizza Hut (1977), Taco Bell (1978), and Kentucky Fried Chicken (1986). In 1998, PepsiCo acquired Tropicana and in the early 2000s, Quaker Oats Co. which added Gatorade, the popular isotonic sports drink to its beverage lineup. In 2010, PepsiCo earned revenues of nearly $43 billion and net income of $5.9 billion. Pepsi-Cola was the beverage division of PepsiCo which had brands such as Pepsi, Diet Pepsi, Mountain Dew, and 7 Up. PepsiCo in India PepsiCo entered the Indian market in 1988 as a joint venture between PepsiCo, Punjab Agro Industrial Corporation, and Voltas India and sold Pepsi under the brand name Lehar Pepsi. In 1994, after liberalization of Indian economy, PepsiCo India bought out its partners and became a fully-owned subsidiary of PepsiCo. Pepsi had been associated with cricket and Bollywood and over the years had Shah Rukh Khan, Sachin Tendulkar, Saif Ali Khan, Amitabh Bachchan, Kareena Kapoor, Priyanka Chopra, Virendra Sehwag, M S Dhoni, John Abraham, Ranbir Kapoor, and Deepika Padukone as its celebrity endorsers. ADVERTISING OF THE MAJOR CSD BRANDS OF PEPSICO Pepsi The Early Advertising Pepsi was the flagship brand of Pepsi-Cola. In the early days, it used the tagline “Exhilarating, invigorating, aids digestion.” Other early campaigns had slogans such as “Twice as much” and “Why take less when Pepsi’s best?” In 1953, the calorie content in the product formulation was reduced which Pepsi highlighted with its “The light refreshment” campaign. The late-1950s campaign “Be sociable, have a Pepsi” and the early-1960s campaign “Now it’s Pepsi for those who think young” marked its first emphasis on youth.44 Pepsi Generation However the first major campaign targeting youth “Come Alive: You are in the Pepsi generation” (targeted at the then teenaged baby boomers) was launched in 1963.7 The commercials showed youthful faces engaged in energetic
7 Baby boomers were persons born during -World War II baby boom. They were considered to be privileged and more affluent and often against traditional values.
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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Post-World_War_II_baby_boom
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activities such as surfing or riding motorcycles.45 By 1967, Pepsi had attained about 14% market share compared to Coke’s 30%, whereas 20 years earlier Pepsi trailed Coke by a 1:5 ratio.46 Pepsi Challenge In 1977, Pepsi launched the “Pepsi challenge” campaign in which taste-testing booths were set up in parking lots and malls across America to test the brand consumers preferred. The ads resonated with the viewers and for some years, Pepsi eroded Coke’s market share bit by bit. The campaign was discontinued in 1983 after research indicated that Pepsi was being perceived as brash and pushy. Despite its best efforts, however, Pepsi could not overtake Coke. In 1983, Pepsi returned to the “Pepsi generation” campaign to continue to cultivate the youthful image and attract a new demographic group. The key target was consumers aged 12 to 24 years. BBDO Worldwide – the long-standing agency of Pepsi launched “Choice of a new generation” campaign starring Michael Jackson. Pepsi hired the producer of Jackson’s music videos to film the ads such that they looked similar to music videos on MTV. By 1987, the campaign had won more than 50 awards.47 While Pepsi targeted youth, it was conscious that its original “Pepsi generation” (those baby boomers who were teenagers in the 1960s) was aging. The “One look campaign” in 1991 negotiated this divide. The campaign played a hit song of the 1960s while simultaneously idealizing youth. While the children featured in the campaign were blissfully innocent and not loud and rebellious, the campaign employed a tongue-in-cheek humor and had scantily clothed models (such as Cindy Crawford) – elements that spoke to a younger audience.48 By the early 1990s, Coke had regained its supremacy. To reverse this trend, Pepsi launched the “Gotta have it” campaign which was targeted at aging baby boomers and featured older spokespersons. This strategy proved unsuccessful and Pepsi quickly returned to its younger audience with 1993’s “Be young, have fun, drink Pepsi” campaign. The campaign though well-received did not enable Pepsi to gain market share from Coca-Cola.49 In 1995, Pepsi revived the “Pepsi challenge campaign.” For many consumers, Coke was an automatic selection grounded in the belief that Coke tasted better than Pepsi. If enough people could be encouraged to participate, this could substantially increase Pepsi’s market share. The new campaign was subtle and avoided overt declarations of “Pepsi being the winning Cola.” Early in the creative process, the company toyed with end-lines such as “People prefer Pepsi”, but eventually settled for “its make your mind up time.50” The campaign met with success. In 1997, Pepsi revised its “Pepsi generation” campaign to “Generation next.” The campaign positioned Pepsi and its drinkers as looking in anticipation to the future and relied heavily on celebrity endorsers. The commercials elicited criticism that the edgier, more youth-oriented ads were alienating important audience segments.51 In early 2000, it launched the campaign “Ask for more” and in 2001 “The joy of Pepsi” that enlisted megastars Britney Spears and Beyonce Knowles to acknowledge its return to the focus on youth lifestyle. In 2003, “Pepsi, it’s the Cola” campaign took a more direct approach to selling and highlighted the various foods that tasted good with Pepsi.52 Pepsi Advertising in India The early advertising of Pepsi in India from 1990–1994 centered on the twin taglines “This is the right choice baby ah-ha” and “The choice of a new generation.” In 1996 when Coca-Cola was the sponsor of the Cricket World Cup, Pepsi ran a campaign “Nothing official about it.” In between, Pepsi broadcast spoofs of Thums Up and Coke ads. Hari Krishnan, Vice-President, JWT Delhi (the agency for Pepsi) said:
India is a country with two big obsessions – cricket and Bollywood. These two platforms have given India their youth icons. Pepsi has associated with these two platforms to connect with youth. The youth have an irreverent side to them and Pepsi stands for it.53
In 2001, Pepsi launched an Indian version of the global “Ask for more” campaign (Yeh dil mange more), which was replaced by another global campaign “Dare for more” (Yeh pyaas hai bari) in 2004. Shashi Kalathil, Executive Director (Marketing), Pepsi Foods Ltd. said:
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Coke and Pepsi: From Global to Indian Advertising Page 9 of 18
Today’s youth dream and yearn to get more out of life. The campaign is about the assertive spirit and confidence to make things happen.54
In 2006, Pepsi started a campaign “Join the blue billion” wishing good luck to the Indian cricket team for the World Cup. In 2008, it launched a new campaign “Youngistan”.8 Punita Lal, Executive Director (Marketing), PepsiCo India said:
Youngistan is not a place, it is an attitude. It represents a world of youth where they like to take on challenges. It captures the energy and irreverence of the young confident India. This is a big idea that Pepsi will leverage to connect with a whole new generation.55
In 2010, Pepsi launched “Youngistaan’s wow” campaign which underlined that youth surprised the world with their smartness that resulted in a “Wow!” Diet Pepsi In 1963, PepsiCo launched Diet Pepsi. Although diet soft drinks typically appealed to older consumers worried about their waistlines, Pepsi sought to broaden the appeal to include younger drinkers. In 1991, Pepsi launched the campaign “You got the right one baby, uh-huh!” which immediately entered into the lexicon of popular culture. Research revealed that most consumers believed that the campaign was for Pepsi and not Diet Pepsi! In the mid- 1990s, the campaign “This is diet” was launched which positioned the brand on taste. In 1995, Pepsi started a campaign “Nothing else is a Pepsi” for both Pepsi as well as Diet Pepsi. Ted Sann, Chief Creative Officer at BBDO said:
Most of the time people think about Pepsi as a unified brand. So, Pepsi and Diet Pepsi can be covered under the same idea.56
In 1999, Pepsi launched a new campaign “Forever young” targeted at regular Pepsi drinkers in the age group of 25– 34 years on the cusp of shifting to a diet cola. The target market was transitioning into adults and hence suffered from a sense of loss of youth. This led to the consumer insight that they may be maturing in age and responsibility but would always remain young at heart. The campaign continued until 2002 and led to an increase in market share. In India, Diet Pepsi had obtained limited consumer franchise with 0.3% market share in 2009. It advertised minimally and used the theme of “less than one calorie.” 7 Up The Uncola 7 Up, the lemon and lime flavored drink was acquired by PepsiCo in the 1980s. In 1967, it started a memorable campaign “The Uncola” which captured the antiestablishment mood of the times and leveraged the public awareness of colas to the advantage of 7 Up. The campaign continued to be used in revised forms until the 1990s.57 In 1982, 7 Up positioned itself once more against the colas with the campaign “No caffeine: never had it, never will.” The campaign leveraged on the research finding that there was very low awareness among consumers that soft drinks contained caffeine. Within months, its sales increased by about 10%. Soon competitors launched their own non-caffeinated versions and consumers switched back to their brand of first choice.58 Fido Dido In 1987, 7 Up purchased the license to use the animated character Fido Dido from its creator Joanna Ferrone for a period of five years for a whopping $700,000.9 Fido Dido – a cool, genuine, liberal, witty character was found to be a good fit with 7 Up.59 Fido Dido was used in advertising until the early 1990s and then brought back in the early 2000s when the license was renewed. In 2010, Fido Dido was worth $20 million and had become synonymous with 7 Up.60 8 The tagline in Hindi was – Yeh hai Youngistan meri jaan. 9 The character had eight upright strands of hair and a triangular face perched on a thin wiry physique.
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Coke and Pepsi: From Global to Indian Advertising Page 10 of 18
7 Up created spoofs of Coca-Cola advertisements. In 2010, 7 Up launched “Ridiculously bubbly” campaign premised on the concept that drinking 7 Up can transform even the grumpiest people into effervescent free spirits.61 7 Up Advertising in India 7 Up was launched in India in 1990 and its international mascot Fido Dido was used for positioning the brand as a cool drink for youth. In 2002, it launched a campaign “Keep it cool” which focused on intense cooling and refreshment. In 2005, Fido Dido was Indianized for the first time in a “qawwali” scene.10 In 2008, the campaign “Bheja fry, Seven Up try” was broadcast. “Bheja fry” was the youth’s expression for the fatigued, irritated state of mind resulting from situations such as exams and was a part of the youth lingo. The campaign showcased how the brand could lift spirits even in such situations. Mountain Dew Mountain Dew was a lemon–lime flavored soft drink with tangy taste, plenty of caffeine, and a shade of green. Mountain Dew was developed in the 1940s to serve as a mixer with whisky. In 1964, PepsiCo bought Mountain Dew. The catchy campaign in 1966, “Ya-Hoo, Mountain Dew!” targeted at its traditional segment – rural men – became highly popular. Most of the campaigns showed images of recreations of countryside such as fishing and hunting.11 Thereafter, the brand tried to expand the reach from America’s hinterlands into the suburbs and cities. Do the Dew BBDO abandoned the “country” component of the campaign in 1991 to build an entire campaign around extreme sports such as windsurfing, paragliding, roller skating, and motocross cycling. 12 “Do the Dew” campaign in 1993 featured adventurous young men perform thrilling stunts such as jumping from a cliff and waterfall diving. The ads used celebrities and humor to relate with youth. The brand sales grew even when the category sales were declining.62 In 2004, a revised version of the campaign featuring characters playing video games was shown. Mountain Dew Advertising in India Mountain Dew was launched in India in 2003 with the global campaign “Do the Dew.” One commercial featured a Dew dude on a bike chasing a cheetah, catching up with it, leaping and wrestling it into submission before pulling a can of Mountain Dew from its throat! “Cheetah also drinks” (Cheetah bhi peeta hai) remarked another Dew dude. The ad became a hit.63 The campaign continued until 2006. In 2007, the brand was re-launched with “There is victory beyond fear” (Darr ke aage jeet hai) campaign in which the brand encouraged youth in their moment of fear to believe in themselves.64 The campaign continued until 2010. Mirinda Mirinda was an artificially flavored fruit soft drink created in Spain which was later acquired by PepsiCo. Mirinda meant “amazing” in Spanish and was perceived as a drink consumed with afternoon snacks. Although it was available in various flavors such as apple, strawberry and grapes, orange was more popular. Mirinda was more popular outside the United States and competed with Coca-Cola’s Fanta. In 1996, it started a global campaign “Give in to the taste” which positioned the brand on great orangey irresistible taste.
10 Qawwali was a form of Sufi devotional music popular in South Asia, particularly in the Punjab and Sindh regions of Pakistan, Hyderabad, Delhi, and other parts of India. 11 Some of the other campaigns were “Put a little Ya-Hoo in your life,” (1973) “Hello, sunshine, hello, Mountain Dew” (1974) and “Dew it, country cool” (1986). 12 Motocross is a form of motorcycle sport or all-terrain vehicle racing held on enclosed off-road circuits. The term is derived from “motorcycle” and “cross-country”.
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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sufi
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Devotional_music
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_Asia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Punjab,_Pakistan
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sindh
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pakistan
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hyderabad,_India
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Delhi
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/India
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Motorcycle_sport
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/All-terrain_vehicle
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Off_road
Coke and Pepsi: From Global to Indian Advertising Page 11 of 18
Mirinda Advertising in India Mirinda was launched in India in 1991. JWT had been its long-standing agency which ran the global campaign “Give in to the taste” from 1996 to 1999. Its campaigns were based on the research finding that taste was the core driver of orange drinks.13 Most Mirinda campaigns showed celebration of a successful drink with an open mouth exclamation of “Mirindaaa.” Although orange drinks typically had a younger appeal, the challenge was to show that they were not kid drinks. The campaign in 2004 depicted how the tempting taste of Mirinda led to momentarily losing righteousness.65 In 2008, the brand moved away from taste to the proposition of fun, happiness, and mischief. Jyotsna Gadi, Executive Vice-President–Flavours, PepsiCo India said:
As we grow older, we become more constrained by societal norms and correct behavior. But each one of us longs to be spontaneous and unrestrained. Mirinda celebrates the need for some crazy, infectious fun that lifts our spirits and brings momentary release from our stressed lives.66
Role of Advertising What was the role played by advertising in building the various brands of the two soft drink majors? How had the advertising of each of the brands evolved over time? How did the two majors manage their product portfolio? How did the two portfolios play the advertising war? What role does advertising play in the carbonated soft drink industry? What was the role played by global advertising in shaping local advertising in India? How was the role of advertising different in the two markets – United States and India?
13 In 2004, the tagline was “Taste aisa chahiye, character fisla jaye” (tastes so good, one loses righteousness). In 2005, the campaign “Chodna mat” (don’t leave) reflected the obsessive desire of drinkers to not leave even a drop in the bottle. In 2008, the campaign “Bas ek Mirinda ki doori hai, paagalpanti bhi zaroori hai” (Mirinda brings madness) was launched. In 2010, the campaign “Weekend aye to pagalpanti chaye” (madness in weekends) stemmed from the insight that the youth loved to spend time with family on weekends and Mirinda helped the youth to have some spontaneous fun.
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Coke and Pepsi: From Global to Indian Advertising Page 12 of 18
Exhibit 1 Per capita consumption of carbonates
Country Per Capita Consumption
(gallons in the year 2007)
US 180
Mexico 152
Brazil 75
China 12
Germany 98
UK 94
Argentina 135
Spain 92
Russia 25
South Africa 68
Philippines 33
Thailand 38
India 4
Egypt 20
South Korea 24
Japan 21
Pakistan 7
Source: Euromonitor International
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Coke and Pepsi: From Global to Indian Advertising Page 13 of 18
Exhibit 2 Sales of soft drinks in India
(in Rs. Billion, Year 2009)
Particulars *Off-trade **On-trade Total
Carbonates 44.3 67.0 111.3
Fruit/vegetable juice 24.0 8.7 32.8
Bottled water 35.6 37.3 72.9
Functional drinks 0.9 3.0 3.9
Concentrates 2.9 – 2.9
Ready to drink tea 0.3 0.1 0.4
Total 108.0 116.1 224.2
Source: Euromonitor International *Off-trade refers to sales for consumption off the premises **On-trade refers to sales for consumption on the premises.
Exhibit 3
Sales of cola and non-cola carbonates
(in Rs. Million)
Particulars 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2004–09
CAGR
Cola carbonates
-Regular cola carbonates
-Low calorie cola
carbonates
16,452.9
16,452.9

17,021.8
16,720.0
301.9
15,780.1
15,491.1
289.0
16,105.5
15,801.6
304.0
16,813.8
16,492.6
321.2
18,169.1
17,828.1
341.1
2.0
1.6

Non-cola carbonates
-Lemonade/lime
-Orange carbonates
-Mixers
-Other non-cola carbonates
Total Carbonates
19,093.9
8,612.7
6,601.9
2,152.1
1,727.3
35,546.8
21,638.6
10,044.9
7,360.7
2,292.9
1,940.1
38,660.5
21,953.9
10,183.5
7,434.9
2,342.2
1,993.3
37,734.0
22,962.7
10,787.3
7,689.6
2,404.7
2,081.1
39,068.2
24,349.1
11,658.5
8,033.7
2,459.3
2,197.6
41,162.9
26,143.6
12,850.9
8,434.4
2,526.5
2,331.7
44,312.7
6.5
8.3
5.0
3.3
6.2
4.5
Source: Euromonitor International By off-trade value in India
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Coke and Pepsi: From Global to Indian Advertising Page 14 of 18
Exhibit 4 Top five soft drink brands in the world
Rank (2009) Brand Billion Liters
1 Coca-Cola 37.8
2 Pepsi 16.5
3 Diet Coke 8.5
4 Sprite 8.1
5 Fanta 7.6
Source: Euromonitor International
Exhibit 5 Financial performance of PepsiCo Inc. and Coca-Cola Company
Particulars ($ Million) 2007 2008 2009
Pepsi Coca-Cola Pepsi Coca-Cola Pepsi Coca-Cola
Revenues 39,474.0 28,857.0 43,251.0 31,944.0 43,232.0 30,990.0
Cost of goods sold 18,038.0 10,406.0 20,351.0 11,374.0 20,099.0 11,088.0
Gross profit 21,436.0 18,451.0 22,900.0 20,570.0 23,133.0 19,902.0
SG&A
-Advertising expenses
14,196.0
1,800.0
10,945.0
2,774.0
15,877.0
1,700.0
11,774.0
2,998.0
15,026.0
1,700.0
11,358.0
2,791.0
Net income 5,658.0 5,981.0 5,142.0 5,807.0 5,946.0 6,824.0
Profit margin 14.3% 20.7% 11.9% 18.2% 13.8% 22.0%
Revenue growth 12.3% 19.8% 9.6% 10.7% 0.0% (3.0%)
Source: Datamonitor and Annual Reports of Company
Exhibit 6 Company-wise market shares of carbonates
Company 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Coca-Cola India Pvt Ltd. 56.3 57.3 57.5 58.2 59.0
PepsiCo India Holdings Pvt Ltd. 40.8 39.7 39.5 39.0 38.7
Parle Agro Pvt Ltd. 0.2 0.3 0.5 0.6 0.6
Others 2.7 2.7 2.6 2.2 1.7
Source: Euromonitor International By off-trade value in India
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Coke and Pepsi: From Global to Indian Advertising Page 15 of 18
Exhibit 7 Brand-wise market shares of carbonates
Brand 2006
U.S.
2006
India
2007
U.S.
2007
India
2008
U.S.
2008
India
2009
U.S.
2009
India
Thums Up – 15.7 – 15.5 – 15.4 – 15.6
Pepsi 11.4 14.9 11.3 14.9 11.0 14.9 10.6 15.1
Sprite 5.0 11.2 5.0 11.9 4.8 12.9 4.8 13.5
Mirinda – 9.9 – 10.0 – 9.9 – 9.8
Limca – 9.1 – 9.3 – 9.1 – 9.3
Coca-Cola 15.6 9.6 15.5 9.1 15.1 9.0 14.7 9.1
Fanta 1.5 9.2 1.8 9.3 1.9 9.4 2.0 9.2
7 Up 1.5 5.4 1.5 5.4 1.5 5.4 1.5 5.4
Mountain Dew 6.3 4.7 6.9 4.6 6.6 4.6 6.3 4.6
Diet Pepsi 6.9 0.4 6.6 0.4 6.2 0.4 6.2 0.4
Diet Coke 9.2 0.4 9.7 0.4 9.6 0.4 10.1 0.4
Others 42.6 9.5 41.7 9.2 43.3 8.6 43.8 7.6
Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100
Source: Euromonitor International By off-trade value
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Coke and Pepsi: From Global to Indian Advertising Page 16 of 18
Exhibit 8 Advertising expenditure of select brands in India
(in Rs. million)
Brands
2007 2008 2009
Market
Share
Ad*
Spend
Ad Spend
per 2007
Share
Point
Market
Share
Ad*
Spend
Ad Spend
per 2008
Share
Point
Market
Share
Ad*
Spend
Ad Spend
per 2009
Share
Point
Coca-
Cola
9.1 395.04 43.41 9.0 573.80 63.75 9.1 1041.6 114.47
Pepsi 14.9 559.97 37.58 14.9 201.77 13.54 15.1 760.93 50.39
Mountain
Dew
4.6 229.25 49.84 4.6 281.82 61.26 4.6 281.8 61.26
Sprite 11.9 291.98 24.54 12.9 541.46 41.97 13.5 812.73 60.20
7 Up 5.4 486.76 90.14 5.4 120.78 22.37 5.4 385.08 72.38
Thums
Up
15.5 371.48 23.97 15.4 503.03 32.66 15.6 842.94 54.03
Mirinda 10.0 290.33 29.03 9.9 54.99 5.55 9.8 310.65 31.70
Fanta 9.3 177.07 19.04 9.4 185.72 19.76 9.2 505.83 54.98
Limca 9.3 213.70 22.98 9.1 281.92 30.98 9.3 830.85 89.34
Source: Euromonitor International *40% of TAM cost
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Coke and Pepsi: From Global to Indian Advertising Page 17 of 18
Endnotes 1. Global carbonated soft drinks, Industry Profile, Datamonitor, November 2010, p. 13. 2. www.interbrand.com 3. David B. Yoffie, Case: Cola wars continue: Coke and Pepsi in 2006, Harvard Business School, p. 5. 4. Global carbonated soft drinks, Industry Profile, Datamonitor, November 2010, p. 12. 5. Carbonates – India, Euromonitor International, Country Sector Briefing, April 2010, Table 4, p. 4. 6. Global industry overview: Soft drinks and bottled water, Encyclopedia of Global Industries, p.3. 7. David B. Yoffie, Case: Cola wars continue: Coke and Pepsi in 2006, Harvard Business School, p. 6. 8. Ibid, p. 8. 9. Geoffrey P., How Coca-Cola’s research positions it for global growth, WARC, October 2008, p.1. 10. Global carbonated soft drinks, Industry Profile, November 2010, Datamonitor, p. 14. 11. Kripalani, M. and Clifford, L. Mark, Finally, coke gets it right, Businessweek, October 2, 2003, Issue 3819, Business Source Complete. 12 Candice M., The Coca-Cola Company: Real Campaign, Vol. 2, 2007, p.1. 13. David B. Yoffie, Case: Cola wars continue: Coke and Pepsi in 2006, Harvard Business School, p. 6. 14. David B. Yoffie, Cola wars continue: Coke and Pepsi in 2006, Harvard Business School, p.7. 15. Mancini C., The Coca-Cola Company: Real campaign, Vol. 2, 2007. 16. Douglas B. Holt, How Brands Become ICONS – The Principles of Cultural Branding, Harvard Business School Press. 17. Stanfel R., Coca-Cola Company: Always Coca-Cola campaign, Encyclopedia of Major Marketing Campaigns, Vol. 1, 2000. 18. Mancini C., The Coca-Cola Company: Real Campaign, Vol. 2, 2007, p.2. 19. Case Study – Coca-Cola India, Tuck School of Business at Dartmouth, p. 6 20. http://www.coca-colaindia.com/corporate_citizenship/corporate_citizenship_action_detail.aspx?cid=133 21. http://www.coca-colaindia.com/media/media_news_releases_detail.aspx?id=429 22. Condry N., Coca-Cola Company: Just for the taste of it, Diet Coke campaign, Encyclopedia of Major Marketing Campaigns, Vol. 1, 2000, p. 1. 23. Condry N., Coca-Cola Company: This is refreshment campaign, Encyclopedia of Major Marketing Campaigns, Vol. 1, 2000, p. 1. 24. Tokumitsu C., The Coca-Cola Company: You are what you drink campaign, Encyclopedia of Major Marketing Campaigns, Vol. 2, 2007, p. 2. 25. Ibid, p. 3 26. Diet Coke widens target with £10m lifestyle push, Business Source Complete. 27. http://www.thecoca-colacompany.com/presscenter/nr_20100304_diet_coke_stay_extraordinary.html 28. Stanfel R., Coca-Cola Company: Sprite – I like the sprite in your campaign, Encyclopedia of Major Marketing Campaigns, Vol. 1, 2000, p. 1. 29. Ibid 30. Stanfel R., Coca-Cola Company: Sprite – Image is nothing. Thirst is everything. Obey your thirst campaign, Encyclopedia of Major Marketing Campaigns, Vol. 1, 2000, p. 2. 31. http://www.adweek.com/aw/content_display/creative/features/e3ie935cc06a403502222ac700356c75632? pn=2 32.http://www.adweek.com/aw/content_display/our-products/in- print/creative/e3ie935cc06a40350226cd9b909a1ab1218?pn=2 33. http://en.academic.ru/dic.nsf/enwiki/220214 34. http://www/medianewsline.com/news/145/ARTCLE/5919/2010-03-29.html 35. http://marketingpractice.blogspot.com/2006/02/thums-up-taste-thunder.html 36. http://www.exchange4media.com/e4m/news/fullstory.asp?section_id=1&news_id=20607&tag=15334&pict= 37. http://drypen.in/case-studies/case-study-brand-thums-up.html 38. http://www.brandchannel.com/features_profile.asp?pr_id=211 39. http://www.afaqs.com/news/story.html?sid=2354_Limca:+Slaking+a+bigger+thirst 40. Coca-Cola India – Limca: Emerging from the shadows, Ogilvy Asia Pacific, AME Awards 2010 submission. 41. Ibid 42.http://www.business-standard.com/india/news/limca-launches-new-campaign-doobo-taazgi-meinactor-dipannita-sharma/18/44/372632/ 43.Ibid 44. Mancini C., PepsiCo, Inc.: The joy Of Pepsi campaign, Encyclopedia of Major Marketing Campaigns, Vol. 2, 2007, p. 1. 45. Bailey R., PepsiCo, Inc.: Pepsi. It’s the Cola campaign, Encyclopedia of Major Marketing Campaigns, Vol. 2, 2007, p. 1. 46. www.warc.com 47. Stanfel R., Pepsi-Cola Company: Choice of A new generation campaign, Encyclopedia of Major Marketing Campaigns, Vol. 1, 2000, p.2. 48. Stanfel R., Pepsi-Cola Company: Just one look campaign, Encyclopedia of Major Marketing Campaigns, Vol. 1, 2000, p. 2. 49. Stanfel R., Pepsi-Cola Company: Pepsi stuff campaign, Encyclopedia of Major Marketing Campaigns, Vol. 1, 2000, p. 1. 50. Williams J., The Pepsi challenge – It’s make your mind up time, Account Planning Group (UK), Creative Planning Awards, 1995. 51. Schnakenberg R., PepsiCo, Inc.: Generation next campaign, Encyclopedia of Major Marketing Campaigns, Vol. 2, 2007. 52. Bailey R., PepsiCo, Inc.: Pepsi. It’s the cola campaign, Encyclopedia of Major Marketing Campaigns, Vol. 2, 2007. 53 http://www.exchange4media.com/brandspeak/brandspeak_FS.asp?section_id=42&news_id=35983&tag=31874 54. http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/2004/02/18/stories/2004021800790600.htm 55. http://www.bsl.co.in/india/news/pepsi-to-say-yeh-hai-youngistaan-meri-jaan/33749/on 56.http://www.nytimes.com/1995/01/20/business/the-media-business-at-pepsi-the-new-theme-is-there-s-nothing-else.html 57. Hayes K.C., Dr Pepper/Seven Up, Inc.: No caffeine: Never had it, never will campaign, Encyclopedia of Major Marketing Campaigns, Vol. 1, 2000. K.C. 58. Ibid 59. www.superbrands.com/ro/images/fs06/sb_ro_06_7up.pdf 60. http://www.afaqs.com/news/story.html?sid=16981_Fido+Dido+moves+beyond+the+7UP+turf 61. http://www.mediapost.com/publications/?art_aid=135374&fa=Articles.showArticle 62. Ibid 63.http://marketing-and-brands.blogspot.com/2009/01/brand-repositioning-study-of-mountain.html
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Coke and Pepsi: From Global to Indian Advertising Page 18 of 18
64. http://www.themarketers.in/?p=1484 65. http://www.indiantelevision.com/mam/headlines/y2k5/mar/marmam45.htm 66. pepsicoindia.co.in/media/Press-Releases/release_05_07_08.aspx
This document is authorized for use only by Kellie McGilvray ([email protected]). Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. Please contact [email protected] or 800-988-0886 for additional copies.
·         global soft drink industry
·         the coca-cola company
·         In the 1960s, Coke launched Fanta (1960), Sprite (1961), and the low calorie cola Tab (1963). It diversified into non-carbonates by purchasing “Minute Maid” (fruit juice), “Duncan Foods” (coffee, tea, and hot chocolate), and “Belmont Springs Water.” I…
·         Coca-Cola in India
o    advertising of the major csd b

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