State which general propertyProgramming I – Intro to PythonCompute the initial price of a swaptiongame between a parent and a childDaoud and Salma SalemLuke, Kethan, and Arjun.

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QUESTION 1
Which type of immunity is expressed in the following scenarios? Choose between:
Non-specific (first line defence)
Non-specific (second line defence)
Specific (antibody-mediated)
Specific (cell-mediated immunity)
(0.5 mark each – total 2 marks)
Scenario
Type of immunity
Bacterial septicaemia (bacterial contamination in systemic circulation)
   •       Non-specific (second line defence)
Mucous-coated hairs within the nose trap and filter microbes from inhaled air.
Non-specific (first line defence)
Interferons are released by virus-infected cells and interfere with viral replication.
Specific (cell-mediated immunity)
A virus multiplies inside the epithelial cells in your throat.
       •   Specific (antibody-mediated)
QUESTION 2
Choose TWO of the below scenarios and highlight these rows bold.  State which general property of adaptive immunity the scenario illustrates in the second column. Select ONE phrase (from the list below) that BEST describes what is happening at a cellular level to result in this property of adaptive immunity. Write the letter corresponding to this phrase in the third column.  An example is included.  (0.5 mark each – total 2 marks)
Scenario
General property of immunity
Explanation
Even though your body contains a relatively small number of lymphocytes, your immune system can mount a response against almost any antigen it encounters.
Versatility
A
Generally, after an initial infection, subsequent immune responses to that antigen are faster, stronger and more sustained.
memory
c
You can suffer from ‘the flu’ multiple times throughout your lifetime.
tolerance
g
Your immune system can distinguish between antigens on your own cells, and those of an invading pathogen.
specificity
b
Possible phrases are listed below. Not all phrases will need to be used and only ONE phrase is required per row. If you record more than one, you will not be awarded any marks for your explanation.
A
There are millions of different lymphocyte populations, each of which is sensitive to a different antigen. Lymphocytes proliferate when activated by their specific antigen.
B
Each T or B cell has receptors that respond to only one antigen and ignores all others.
C
Activated lymphocytes produce two groups of cells: one group that attacks the invader immediately, and another that remains inactive unless it is exposed to the same antigen at a later date.
D
Each T and B cell can recognise many antigens and respond to a wide variety of possible threats.
E
T cells are versatile because they produce copious quantities of antibodies that can respond to a wide variety of threats.
F
Phagocytes have a reduced ability to destroy pathogens during subsequent infections.
G
The immune response ignores self-antigens and targets non-self antigens.
H
B cells differentiate into T cells to create a long-lived immune response.
QUESTION 3
Which bone cells would be MOST affected by an absence of parathyroid hormone?  In you answer, you must explain the relationship between these cells and any subsequent effect upon blood calcium levels.  (3 marks)
QUESTION 4
Define hypertrophy and use an example to explain how this term relates to skeletal muscle tissue.  (3 marks)
QUESTION 5
Think about how the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system acts to maintain normal blood pressure. Susan has sustained damage to her adrenal glands.  Consequently, her circulating levels of aldosterone are abnormally low.   What do you expect the lack of aldosterone to do to Susan’s blood pressure? Explain your answer. (3 marks)
QUESTION 6
Tasma is enjoying a night out at the pub with her friends.  It is well established that alcohol inhibits the secretion of ADH.  Explain how this will affect her urine output. (3 marks)
QUESTION 7
Haemophilia is the oldest known hereditary bleeding disorder.  Explain why haemophilia is more commonly seen in males. (3 marks)
QUESTION 8
Describe the changes in volume and pressure inside the chest cavity during a normal, quiet inhalation.
Explain why these changes are occurring, and the effect upon airflow. (4 marks)
Is quiet inhalation an active process?  Briefly explain your answer. (1 mark)
QUESTION 9
Complete the below table of partial pressures in internal respiration. (2 marks)

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pO2 (mmHg)
pCO2 (mmHg)
Tissue

Capillary

Use to the figures above to explain how differences in partial pressures drive the direction of gas movement between the tissues and blood. (2 marks)
QUESTION 10
A person with type O blood has been involved in a car accident and excessive bleeding necessitates a blood transfusion.  Due to an error by a careless laboratory technician, the person is given type B blood.  Explain what will happen. (4 marks)
QUESTION 11
Explain how baroreceptors are involved in a situation where a short period of widespread vasoconstriction has been detected.  How do these receptors then assist the body to respond to the situation?  (4 marks)
QUESTION 12
The Wigger’s diagram (below) represents pressure and volume relationships in the left side of the heart during one cardiac cycle.  To answer this question, you should focus on the changes in pressure in different chambers of, or vessels leading from, the left side of the heart.
For TWO of the labelled points, state which valve is open/closed at that time.  Highlight your chosen point in bold.  You must also explain WHY that valve opened/closed and where the blood is flowing immediately after this point in time, due to the change in position of the valve.  An example is provided.  (4 marksl)
Label
Valve (name and open/closed)
Explanation
A

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B

C

D
Left AV/bicuspid valve opens
The pressure in the left ventricle becomes lower than that in the left atrium.  Blood flows from the left atrium to the left ventricle.
QUESTION 13
The below pictures illustrate phases of haemostasis.  Choose ONE of the pictures.  State which phase of haemostasis is depicted.  You must also provide a brief description of your chosen phase.  Highlight your chosen row in bold.  Note: it is not necessary to label parts of the diagrams, but you may do so if it will help you explain the phases.  (2 marks total)
Picture
Name of phase
Description of phase

QUESTION 14
The following questions relate to the role and importance of a spinal reflex in the body.
Complete the table below to summarise the FIVE anatomical units of the reflex arc (column 1). Use the patellar reflex to provide an example for the blank anatomical units (column 2).  (3 marks)

Anatomical unit
Example (patellar reflex)
1
Receptor
spindle fiber
2
Sensory neurons
Olfactory and optic nerve
3
Integrating centre

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4
Motor neurons

5
effector target

Using the patellar reflex as an example, explain the purpose of a neural reflex. (2 marks)
QUESTION 15
Name the region of the brain responsible for regulation of breathing and blood pressure.  Would you expect damage in this region to be fatal?  Why? (1 mark)
The region of the brain responsible for regulation of breathing and blood pressure is medulla oblongata. Yes, damage in this region can be fatal.
QUESTION 16
Using the diagram provided as a prompt, outline the four steps involved in the transmission of an electrical impulse from the presynaptic neurone to synaptic neurone.  (4 marks)
Step
Outline
1
 Synthesis and storage of neurotransmitters
2
Neurotransmitter release
3
Neurotransmitter postsynaptic receptors
4
Inactivation of neurotransmitters
QUESTION 17
List two (2) differences between the external and internal urethral sphincters. The differences must relate to structure, function or innervation of these sphincters. (1 mark/difference; 2 marks total)
The internal urethral sphincter provides involuntary control of urination. The external urethral sphincter provides voluntary control of urination.
Internal sphincters are the primary muscle for prohibiting the release of urine. External sphincters are a secondary sphincter to control the flow of urine through the urethra.
QUESTION 18
Glucose and protein (e.g. albumin) are substances normally found in blood.  For each of these molecules, answer the following questions in the table below. Assume you are discussing what happens in a healthy person.  (1 mark per box; 6 marks total)
Describe what happens to each substance at the glomerulus. Explain why/why not the substance will move into the tubule system.
If the substance moves into the tubule system, describe what happens to the substance along the tubule system. Explain why.
Do you expect to find each substance in the urine? Explain why or why not.

Glucose
Protein
a) Glomerulus

b) Tubule system

c) Urine

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