the lean transformation project

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EG7322 Lean Engineering
Marina Marinelli
MEng MSc PhD FHEA
m.marinelli@leicester.ac.uk
Project briefing
QUESTIONS
 Identify the internal stakeholders of the lean transformation project and briefly
describe their role in Baolong Automotives and in the lean implementation
initiative of the company. Present your answer in a tabular format.
(10%)
 Identify the various strategies / methods / techniques / policies / measures /
decisions/ attitudes deployed by the senior management towards Baolong’s lean
transformation. Discuss their contribution towards the establishment of lean as
corporate culture in the company and identify the reasons behind their failure
or success. In case the latter is not clear from the text, make an evaluation of
your own. (30%)
CASE STUDY
THE LEAN TRANSFORMATION OF BAOLONG AUTOMOTIVE CORPORATION
• ‘For a manufacturing company, if you cannot implement 5S, then you will
fail in everything.” Use your knowledge in lean manufacturing to explain
why the above statement is true. You can also use other sources
(journals, books etc) to support your arguments.
(15%)
• Utilise Baolong Automotive’s experience and your own knowledge in lean,
to provide strategic advice to other organizations on how to successfully
implement lean (i.e. give generally applicable strategic suggestions based
on lessons learned – not a discussion about what lean is and how it
works).
(30%)
 Which are in your opinion the reasons behind the performance gap
between the two plants as far as the lean transformation success is
concerned?
(15%)
REQUIREMENTS
•Send the email with the group members (follow instructions in BB)
•Answer all questions in groups of 5 /6 persons – work as a group not
individually
•Please use standard university cover and include both your name and
student number.
•Suggested max total length: 8 pages
•Required Font: Tahoma size 11
•Line spacing: 1.15
•Give clear, concise and well organised answers making sure that
you are answering the question.
•In case of use of external sources in question 4 proper referencing is
necessary.
• Individual answers’ length: at students’ discretion
• Other formatting choices: at student’s discretion
Deadline: March 31st, 15.00
Submit your answers in BB (1 submission per
group) in a pdf file named LP21_your key word
EG7322 Lean Engineering
Session 7: JIT Basics (line balancing)
Marina Marinelli
MEng MSc PhD FHEA
m.marinelli@leicester.ac.uk
Takt time
Takt time: The time in which your operation must produce a finished product
so that production matches the average customer demand.
Takt time =
Available production time
Total production requirements for this time
Producing to takt time…
 sets the pace of production equal to the pace of sales
 allows you to determine direct labor requirements in relation to demand
 prevents overproduction
overproduction https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wfsRAZ
UnonI
Takt time keeps
the beat of
customer demand
Don’t produce something unless the
customer has ordered it
Takt time
Takt time
Customer demand is 100 products, and available working time is 15 hours,
calculate the Takt Time
a. 540 sec
b. 480 sec
c. 620 sec
SLMS Molding – Current state
The raw stock initially goes through molding to supply parts to the
painting operation and directly to assembly.
The raw stock initially goes through molding, where three
injection-molding presses, each staffed by a molding
department operator, make the support arms. Presses run
three shifts to supply parts to the painting operation and
directly to assembly. Changeovers take approximately two
hours.
Strut: a piece
designed to resist
pressure in the
direction of its length
SLMS Molding – Current state
At SLMS, the assembly
operation consists of 12 distinct
operations done by 4 operators
in each shift.
Αssembly
One of the essential tasks in creating a pull system is to determine how best to
distribute work elements (operations) in the value stream to meet takt time.
The task of balancing labour to customer demand is called
line balancing.
Line balancing
1. Collection of cycle time data:
the supervisor lists all the work
elements, studies the
process on the floor (from
all the cycle times and
number of operators for
each operation), and
determines the time required
for each element (e.g., pick up
part, walk, start machine, etc.).
Maximise the flexibility of
people and machinery
Line balancing is the process by which you evenly distribute the work
elements within a value stream in order to meet takt time.
Tools required: cycle time
worksheet / Video Camera with
timer showing sec on screen
Line balancing
Line balancing
Lowest repeatable time element: lowest
time observed more than once
Single incidences do not count
Most frequent: baseline for improvement
Low repeatable: realistic target – what was
different?
Highest time: what happened?
Strut to
arm
28 sec
Strut
/arm to
base
18 sec
Height proportional to the time the work element represents
Strut/
arm/base
to cap
14 sec
Add
bottom
clip
14 sec
Inspect
bot 8 sec 4 sec
60 sec
50
40
30
20
10

Line balancing
Strut to
arm
28 sec
Strut
Inspect
/arm to
base
18 sec
Strut/
arm/base
to cap
14 sec
Add
bottom
clip
14 sec
bot 8 sec 4 sec
Side to
base
Side/b/l 26 sec
to cap
10 sec
Add top
clip
10 sec
Side/
base to
leg
24 sec
4 sec
Inspect
top 8 sec
Height proportional to the time the work element represents
60 sec
50
40
30
20
10

Strut to
arm
28 sec
Side to
base
26 sec Side/b/l
to cap
10 sec
Strut
/arm to
base
18 sec
Strut/
arm/base
to cap
14 sec
Add
bottom
clip
14 sec
4 sec
4 sec
Inspect
top 8 sec
Inspect
bot 8 sec
Operator Balance Chart- Current State
Side/
base to
leg
24 sec
Add top
clip
10 sec
Operator 1
46 sec
Operator 2
50 sec
Operator 3
38 sec
Operator 4
34 sec
Takt time
Line balancing
60 sec
50
40
30
20
10

Strut to
arm
28 sec
Side to
base
26 sec Side/b/l
to cap
10 sec
Strut
/arm to
base
18 sec
Strut/
arm/base
to cap
14 sec
Add
bottom
clip
14 sec
4 sec
4 sec
Inspect
top 8 sec
Inspect
bot 8 sec
Operator Balance Chart- Current State

Side/  maintain the flow of the operatio
base to
leg
24 sec
Add top
clip
10 sec
The ideal situation is to have every
operator working at takt time
Operator 1
46 sec
Operator 2
50 sec
Operator 3
38 sec
Operator 4
34 sec
Takt time
Line balancing
move the elements around on the chart
Determine the number of operators needed by dividing total product cycle time by takt
time. Operators needed = 168 / 60 = 2.8
60 sec
50
40
30
20
10

Strut to
arm
28 sec
Side to
base
26 sec Side/b/l
to cap
10 sec
Strut
/arm to
base
18 sec
Strut/
arm/base
to cap
14 sec
Add
bottom
clip
14 sec
4 sec
4 sec
Inspect
top 8 sec
Inspect
bot 8 sec
Operator Balance Chart- Current State
Side/
base to
leg
24 sec
Add top
clip
10 sec

 maintain the flow of the operatio
Operator 1
46 sec
Operator 2
50 sec
Operator 3
38 sec
Operator 4
34 sec
Determine the number of operators needed by dividing total product cycle time by takt
time. Operators needed = 168 / 60 = 2.8
Takt time
Line balancing
move the elements around on the chart
60 sec
50
40
30
20
10

Strut to
arm
28 sec
Strut/
arm/base
to cap
14 sec
4 sec
Inspect
bot 8 sec
The ideal situation is to have eve
operator working at takt time
Side/b/l
to cap
10 sec
Strut
/arm to
base
18 sec
Add
bottom
clip
14 sec
4 sec
Inspect
top 8 sec
Side/
base to
leg
24 sec
Side to
base
26 sec
Add top
clip
10 sec
that time.
Opportunity to set
improvement targe
needed
Operator 1
60 sec
Operator 2
60 sec
Operator 3
48 sec
Line balancing
There is not enough work
to occupy 3 workers fully
but you are still paying for
Eliminate enough waste so
that only 2 operators are
1. Use reasonable judgment when combining work elements.
Flow comes first. Do not overload an operator.
2. Move elements to maintain a smooth process flow.
3. Incorporate additional walk time with new activities for operator.
4. Allow time for a quick inspection of the part.
Line balancing
5. Redesign the equipment layout to facilitate
the flow of goods and materials.
arrange the equipment according to the
processing sequence
bring equipment closer to each other
 Create U‐shaped cells
Cell: an arrangement of people, machines, materials
and methods such that processing steps are adjacent
in sequential order so that parts can be produced
one at a time.
 minimises walking distance
 allows different combinations of work tasks for
operators
 facilitates performance of the first and last
steps in the process by the same operator,
which is helpful in maintaining work pace and
smooth flow
U-shaped cells
60 sec
50
40
30
20
10

Strut to
arm
28 sec
Strut/
arm/base
to cap
14 sec
4 sec
Inspect
bot 8 sec
Side/b/l
to cap
10 sec
Strut
/arm to
base
18 sec
Add
bottom
clip
14 sec
4 sec
Inspect
top 8 sec
Side/
base to
leg
24 sec
Side to
base
26 sec
Add top
clip
10 sec
PAINT
12 sec
operators going to
targeted time??
Operator 1
60 sec
Operator 2
60 sec
Operator 3
48 sec
The ideal situation is to have every
operator working at takt time
Line balancing
How are the 3 future state
complete their work in the
• In traditional production environments full work describes a condition
when all machines are working at capacity or just “staying busy.”
• In direct contrast to this century‐old notion, in a lean environment where
pull production drives the plant in response to actual customer orders,
machines may actually be more cost‐effective when they are idle at times.
• This is meant to be a controversial comment.
It is intended to make you think carefully about the principle behind pull
production—that you lose more money by creating inventory than you do
by pacing the production of people AND machines to the pace of customer
demand.
• In a lean environment, full work means the condition when
all machines and people are working to takt time.
Machine Capacity Balance
Pieces/day = 230,400 (annual
volume) /240 days = 960 pieces
Machine Capacity Balance
Machine Capacity Balance
Pieces/day = 230,400 (annual
volume) /240 days = 960 pieces
Machine Capacity Balance
Pieces/day = 230,400 (annual
volume) /240 days = 960 pieces
For Tool #S98-010 Run seconds/day = 960 pieces/day x 23 second cycle time
= 22,080 sec = 368 min
For Tool #S98-008 … 960×34 = 32640 sec = 544 min
For Tool #S98-014 … 960×23 = 22,080sec = 368 min
Changeover time for mold: 2 hrs = 120 min
x3 times
Changeover time for colour: 15 min x6 times
S98‐008
Run time
544 min
S98‐010 run
time 368 min
120 min T/C
120 min T/C
S98‐014 run
time 368 min
120 min T/C
Top base
Top cap
Bottom cap
Continuous overtime requir
Press no1
90 min CL/T
1440
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
Available time
3*8*60=1,440 min
1440*0.9=1,296
Machine Capacity Balance ChartCurrent State
• A process for changing over production equipment from one part number to
another in as little time as possible. SMED refers to the target of reducing
changeover times to a single digit, or less than 10 minutes.
• A die is a piece of hard metal used to shape sheet metal.
• Stamping machines create desired shapes out of sheet metal “blankets” by bringing
matched lower and upper dies together under thousands of pounds of pressure.

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Single Minute Exchange of Die (SMED)
Machine Capacity



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