To introduce students to present perfect

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Lesson Type : Grammar
Lesson Aims : To introduce students
to present perfect for talking
about general experience
Lesson Objectives:
• Students will understand form
and function through
presentation in a clear context
generated in the warmer
• Students will practise producing
form accurately and the choice
between past simple and present
perfect through controlled
practice dialogues and writing
activities
• Students will practise producing
the form communicatively
through playing a true/false
board game
Level of Class
A2
(Late
elementary/
pre
intermediate)
Teenagers (14
16 years old)
Nationality/first
language
Moroccan
Arabic and for
most students
also French
Number
of
students
12
Length of
lesson
60 mins
Assumed knowledge:
Tenses: Student s are already familiar and fairly confident with present simple,
present continuous and past simple to talk about completed past events and
actions for commonly used verbs. They have recently been introduced to past
continuous for interrupted actions.
Th ey have not been taught any of function of present perfect yet, though
students have probably encountered it elsewhere, including in class when I ask
things like ‘Have you finished?’ ‘Have you done your homework ?’
They know basic grammatical terms such a s grammar, subject, verb, object,
ing form, infinitive
Some students may already know the term ‘past participle’
Anticipated problems:
It will be difficult for students to understand why present perfect is used
rather than past simple. The passé comp osé in French has the same structure
(form) but is not used in exactly the same ways (functions) as in English.
Solution: Examples, concept questions and controlled practice activities
It is confusing that we say ‘I’ve been to Paris’ using the verb be , not
Solution: I will just use lots of examples and hope they don’t ask! Will prepare
simple ‘that’s just a strange thing about English’ sort of answer in case someone
asks do not want to spend a lot of time on this.
When making mini dialogues ( stage 3) some responses will require past
simple and others present perfect e.g. I’ve been Paris Oh, when did you go?
I’ve broken lots of bones Oh which bones have you broken? It will be difficult
for students to apply the rules immediately.
Solution I will correct if it is easily understood from the rules we have looked
at. Will not correct all immediately this will be further developed in next
week’s lesson
If main verb starts with same sound as the final sound in auxiliary verb (e.g. 4. If main verb starts with same sound as the final sound in auxiliary verb (e.g. I’I’ve vve visisited Mecca) students will not be able to hear auxiliary verb. ited Mecca) students will not be able to hear auxiliary verb. Solution:Solution: I will not use an example like this for my model sentence in the I will not use an example like this for my model sentence in the presentation. presentation. 5. The use of 5. The use of everever is variable is variable –– often but not always used in questions and often but not always used in questions and negatives. It is difficulnegatives. It is difficult to explain the exact rules, and doing this would lead to t to explain the exact rules, and doing this would lead to too many rules for one lesson.too many rules for one lesson. Solution:Solution: I will use it correctly in my examples, but not pay much attention to I will use it correctly in my examples, but not pay much attention to it. Students will refine their understanding of it as their English advances. If it. Students will refine their understanding of it as their English advances. If anyonanyone asks I will say it means e asks I will say it means at any timeat any time.. 6. It will be difficult for me (the teacher) not to accidentally use examples of 6. It will be difficult for me (the teacher) not to accidentally use examples of other present perfect functions. To keep the concepts involved in this first lesson other present perfect functions. To keep the concepts involved in this first lesson on present perfect for general experience, I will on present perfect for general experience, I will try to avoid this. try to avoid this. MaterialsMaterials Board pen for every studentBoard pen for every student 3 Handouts for each student 2 Worksheets, 1 homework sheet3 Handouts for each student 2 Worksheets, 1 homework sheet Instructions for board game on ppt Instructions for board game on ppt 3 boards and score sheets 3 boards and score sheets –– one for each group one for each group (boards will be the same as the (boards will be the same as the one on ppt. I haveone on ppt. I have not provided a separate copy) not provided a separate copy) Coursebooks (for irregular verbs chart)Coursebooks (for irregular verbs chart) Copy of board plan for teacher to use during presentationCopy of board plan for teacher to use during presentation
N.B. While you may use or adapt practice activities you have found elsewhere, N.B. While you may use or adapt practice activities you have found elsewhere, the presentation stage must be of your own dthe presentation stage must be of your own designesign. It is not, for example, acceptable . It is not, for example, acceptable to use a video or PowerPoint presentation of this language that you have taken from elsewhere. to use a video or PowerPoint presentation of this language that you have taken from elsewhere.
If you need to, subdivide each stage.
If you need to, subdivide each stage.
StageStage AimAim TimingTiming InterInter– actionaction Teacher activityTeacher activity Student activityStudent activity 1. Warmer1. Warmer Get students Get students talking and talking and introduce a introduce a context for context for target languagetarget language Before students come into class draw a line down Before students come into class draw a line down board to divide it into 2. Write on left side board to divide it into 2. Write on left side ‘Interesting or exciting experiences’ ‘Interesting or exciting experiences’ ‘In 2001 I climbed Mount Olympus”In 2001 I climbed Mount Olympus’ 6 6 minsmins Whole Whole claclassss Ask students come in, hand each one a board pen Ask students come in, hand each one a board pen and indicate they should quickly write an exciting and indicate they should quickly write an exciting experience of their own on the left side of board. (I experience of their own on the left side of board. (I will speak as little as possible, as the natural thing will speak as little as possible, as the natural thing would be to use the target language, which I would be to use the target language, which I want want to avoid at first).to avoid at first). If they don’t put in a time I will ask ‘when?’ and If they don’t put in a time I will ask ‘when?’ and encourage them to put in a date/timeencourage them to put in a date/time Students take pens and each person writes their interesting Students take pens and each person writes their interesting experience on the board.experience on the board. 4m4m (10 (10 mins mins for for stage)stage) Pairs Pairs /threes /threes Correction Correction WhenWhen everyone has written something, everyone has written something, encourage students to work together make any encourage students to work together make any corrections necessary. Point out where mistakes are corrections necessary. Point out where mistakes are if necessary.if necessary. Ask everyone to take out coursebooks because they Ask everyone to take out coursebooks because they will need them soon. will need them soon. Students correct sentences on the board.Students correct sentences on the board. 2. 2. PresentationPresentation Introduce Introduce students to students to form, function form, function and and pronunciation.pronunciation. 3m3m TT–classclass Elicit target languageElicit target language Thank and praise them and say what a lot of Thank and praise them and say what a lot of interesting experiences there are on the board.interesting experiences there are on the board. Select one student, and ask e.g. ‘ISelect one student, and ask e.g. ‘Idrissi, which is the drissi, which is the most interesting experience?’most interesting experience?’ Student selects a sentence e.g. ‘Last summer I went to Student selects a sentence e.g. ‘Last summer I went to Paris.’Paris.’
Check Check understanding.understanding. Ask who it was, then try to elicit the question ‘Have Ask who it was, then try to elicit the question ‘Have you ever been to Paris?’you ever been to Paris?’ Is Rafat the only person with this experience? How Is Rafat the only person with this experience? How can we ask a question about this? can we ask a question about this? Praise suggestions, but say we need a Praise suggestions, but say we need a different different tense. If necessary prompt them : ‘The questions tense. If necessary prompt them : ‘The questions begins with begins with havehave. Have you…’. Have you…’ If anyone produces target question (‘Have you ever If anyone produces target question (‘Have you ever (been to Paris)?’), praise them and ask them to (been to Paris)?’), praise them and ask them to repeat it. repeat it. If not say OK listen to me and say the question If not say OK listen to me and say the question clearlclearly. Get everyone to repeat in chorus a couple y. Get everyone to repeat in chorus a couple of times for pronunciation.of times for pronunciation. Get students to dictate question back to me while I Get students to dictate question back to me while I write it on board. write it on board. Students make suggestions e.g. Do you go to Students make suggestions e.g. Do you go to Paris, Did Paris, Did you go to Paris?you go to Paris? Students make suggestions e.g Have you go to Paris? Students make suggestions e.g Have you go to Paris? Students repeat in chorus.Students repeat in chorus. Students tell teacher what to write.Students tell teacher what to write. 3m3m When the question is on board ask a student who I When the question is on board ask a student who I know will answer affirmatively.know will answer affirmatively. e.g ‘Rafat, he.g ‘Rafat, have you ever been to Paris?’ ave you ever been to Paris?’ Acknowledge that just ‘Yes’ or ‘Yes I have’ is the Acknowledge that just ‘Yes’ or ‘Yes I have’ is the normal answer, but elicit the whole sentence.normal answer, but elicit the whole sentence. Write on board. I have been to Paris or I’ve been to Write on board. I have been to Paris or I’ve been to ParisParis If they have used full form elicit contraction, if they If they have used full form elicit contraction, if they have used conhave used contracted form check what full form is. tracted form check what full form is. Ask a student who hasn’t been to Paris to answer Ask a student who hasn’t been to Paris to answer Student responds Yes.Student responds Yes. Class produce I have been to Paris or I’ve been to ParClass produce I have been to Paris or I’ve been to Parisis Students explain contraction.Students explain contraction. Student produces Student produces ‘I haven’t been to Paris.”I haven’t been to Paris.’
the question to elicit the negative and write ‘I the question to elicit the negative and write ‘I haven’t been to Paris.’ on the board. haven’t been to Paris.’ on the board. 3m3m Check formCheck form Looking at examples we now have on board, elicit Looking at examples we now have on board, elicit the form. (see teacher language)the form. (see teacher language) Ask students to take out their irregular verb lists to Ask students to take out their irregular verb lists to check past particicheck past participles of irregular verbs.ples of irregular verbs. Students analyse formStudents analyse form Student copy form notes into exercise books (if time Student copy form notes into exercise books (if time –– they they are also on worksheet).are also on worksheet). 2m2m Check conceptCheck concept Ask concept questions to check students understand Ask concept questions to check students understand function function — how target language is used.how target language is used. Are we taAre we talking about past, present or future? PASTlking about past, present or future? PAST Do we know exactly when in the past? NODo we know exactly when in the past? NO Quickly elicit dialogue completion (see Board Plan Quickly elicit dialogue completion (see Board Plan 2, point 3) to show contrast with past simple.2, point 3) to show contrast with past simple. Students answer concept questionsStudents answer concept questions 2m2m (13 (13 mins mins for for stage stage 23 23 mins mins totaltotal)) Check pronunciation (Drill present perfect Check pronunciation (Drill present perfect examples only).examples only). Repeat question on board. Ask ‘Does my voice go Repeat question on board. Ask ‘Does my voice go up or down?’ Will add a name to the question (e.g up or down?’ Will add a name to the question (e.g Have you ever been to Paris, Idrissi?) as this makes Have you ever been to Paris, Idrissi?) as this makes it easier to hear the rising intonation. it easier to hear the rising intonation. SamSame procedure for affirmative and negative forms.e procedure for affirmative and negative forms. Insist they use contracted forms. Insist they use contracted forms. Students repeat chorally and individually as directed by the Students repeat chorally and individually as directed by the teacher. teacher. 3. Controlled 3. Controlled PracticePractice Ex 1. Practice Ex 1. Practice with Q form with Q form and changing and changing 2m2m PairsPairs See See Worksheet 1Worksheet 1. Hand out worksheets so they can . Hand out worksheets so they can see example when I give Instructions see example when I give Instructions –– emphasising that you change tense when getting emphasising that you change tense when getting In pairs students produce e.g. In pairs students produce e.g.
from present from present perfect to past perfect to past simplesimple.. 6m6m 1m1m more informationmore information While students work, monitor and help as necessary While students work, monitor and help as necessary and select one or two gooand select one or two good examples to perform to d examples to perform to class. class. (if time) Ask selected pair(s) to perform their mini (if time) Ask selected pair(s) to perform their mini dialoguedialogue Have you ever ridden a camel?Have you ever ridden a camel? Yes, I have.Yes, I have. Really? When did you ride a camel?Really? When did you ride a camel? Last year. Last year. Selected students perform their dialSelected students perform their dialogue.ogue. Ex 2: Practice Ex 2: Practice with affirmative with affirmative and negative and negative form. form. Preparation for Preparation for Freer practice. Freer practice. 4m4m (13 (13 minsmins for for stage stage 36 36 mins mins totaltotal)) PairsPairs If short of time, leave out this activityIf short of time, leave out this activity See See Worksheet 2Worksheet 2. Instruct students to work . Instruct students to work together to write 2 sentences abotogether to write 2 sentences about something they ut something they have done and something they haven’t done + a have done and something they haven’t done + a question. question. Stronger students can write different sentences Stronger students can write different sentences from their partners if they wish.from their partners if they wish. Teacher monitors and helps.Teacher monitors and helps. Pairs work on this task, and practise saying the sentences Pairs work on this task, and practise saying the sentences and questiand questions together. ons together. Freer Freer Practice Practice –– Board gameBoard game Practise natural Practise natural conversations conversations using present using present perfect for perfect for asking about asking about general general experience and experience and moving into moving into past simple to past simple to ask specific ask specific questionsquestions 1m1m 3m3m TT–classclass Regroup studentsRegroup students While I am cleaning board, Ask students to change While I am cleaning board, Ask students to change tables so they are in new groups of fourtables so they are in new groups of four Instructions for gameInstructions for game Project image of board game on to board. Project image of board game on to board. Show students game board, quicklyShow students game board, quickly reviserevise board, board, dice, counter, shakedice, counter, shake the dice, turnthe dice, turn (which they have (which they have had in other lessons).had in other lessons). Explain rules of game, demonstrating by using Explain rules of game, demonstrating by using image on board and showing them the score sheet image on board and showing them the score sheet and getting student to help me with dialogue. and getting student to help me with dialogue. Students sit down in new group of four.Students sit down in new group of four. Students listen and help demonstrate if asked.Students listen and help demonstrate if asked.
15 m15 m (20 (20 minsmins for for stage stage 55 55 mins mins total)total) GroupsGroups Hand out equipment for game. Hand out equipment for game. Teacher monitors and notes eTeacher monitors and notes errors for feedback and rrors for feedback and next week’s lesson which will provide further next week’s lesson which will provide further practice of this form. practice of this form. Students play game and record points on score sheet.Students play game and record points on score sheet. Plenary Plenary — Correction Correction spotspot 5 5 minsmins (60(60 mins mins total)total) Find out who has the highest score in each group Find out who has the highest score in each group and across whole class. Give and across whole class. Give feedbackfeedback with lots of with lots of praise for what they have done well. praise for what they have done well. Elicit corrections for common errors relating to Elicit corrections for common errors relating to target language, and sutarget language, and summarise what we have mmarise what we have learnt. learnt. Set Set homework:homework: Essay Essay –– ‘Select a member of your family and write ‘Select a member of your family and write about 3 interesting things he or she has done in about 3 interesting things he or she has done in their life’their life’ Whole class peer correction.Whole class peer correction. Make notes if they wish. Make notes if they wish.
Explain and justify your
Explain and justify your of of teachingteaching aidsaids (board, visual aids etc.), (board, visual aids etc.), activitiesactivities and and materialsmaterials for this A2 class of children aged 14for this A2 class of children aged 14–16. 16. (100 (100 –150 words)150 words)
Why I chose these activities and materials for this lesson
Why I chose these activities and materials for this lesson
Teenagers usually enjoy talking about their own experience so I chose their own expe
Teenagers usually enjoy talking about their own experience so I chose their own experiences rather than e.g. the life of a famous person. It will be difficult to keep the riences rather than e.g. the life of a famous person. It will be difficult to keep the presentation to time limit, so I copied the form notes on to the worksheet. The examples provide support for the controlled ppresentation to time limit, so I copied the form notes on to the worksheet. The examples provide support for the controlled practice, which helps the students see how ractice, which helps the students see how wewe move from present perfect for ‘general experience’ to past simple for specific events. The board game provides some practice move from present perfect for ‘general experience’ to past simple for specific events. The board game provides some practice of producing the target language, of producing the target language, although the freer speaking part will mainly be in past simple, but this reflects the way this falthough the freer speaking part will mainly be in past simple, but this reflects the way this form is used. The truth or lie aspect ensures all four players have something orm is used. The truth or lie aspect ensures all four players have something to say for each turn. to say for each turn. The rules about which tense to select and when to use The rules about which tense to select and when to use everever are difficult and depend on specific context. Their understanding will develop with more practiceare difficult and depend on specific context. Their understanding will develop with more practice and and exposure. (147 words)exposure. (147 words)

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